The British journal of theatre nursing: NATNews: the official journal of the National Association of Theatre Nurses
A study of the hypothermic effects of general anaesthesia during breast surgery and its amelioration by the use of a thermal drape to most of the body exclusive of the operating site. Two groups of patients are compared, using a constant anaesthetic technique, a single surgeon and the same operating conditions except for the omission or inclusion of thermal drapes. A review of the homeostatic mechanisms of temperature control and other methods of maintaining body temperature are included.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the binary with follow-up (BWFU) or open-ended (OPED) contingent valuation question format would yield better valid estimates of altruistic willingness to pay (WTP) and examine the feasibility of using intra-community altruistic contributions to procure insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the poor in Nigeria. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to elicit stated altruistic WTP from a random sub-sample of respondents that had either the OPED or BWFU used to elicit WTP in Southeast Nigeria.
OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost effectiveness of selected malaria control interventions in the context of reaching the millennium development goals for malaria. DESIGN: Generalised cost effectiveness analysis. DATA SOURCES: Efficacy data came from the literature and authors' calculations supported by expert opinion. Quantities for resource inputs came from the literature and from expert opinion; prices came from the WHO-CHOICE database.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
A community-based baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts in Togo in September 2004 as part of a multidisciplinary evaluation of the impact of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. During this campaign, long-lasting-insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITNs) were distributed to households with children between 9 months and 5 years of age throughout the country in December 2004. The pre-intervention survey provided baseline malaria and anemia prevalence in children < 5 years of age during peak malaria transmission.
BACKGROUND: The Roll Back Malaria strategy recommends a combination of interventions for malaria control. Zanzibar implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in late 2003 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from early 2006. ACT is provided free of charge to all malaria patients, while LLINs are distributed free to children under age 5 y ("under five") and pregnant women.
BACKGROUND: Prevention of malaria epidemics is a priority for African countries. The 2000 malaria epidemic in Burundi prompted the government to implement measures for preventing future outbreaks. Case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy and malaria surveillance were nationally improved. A vector control programme was initiated in one of the most affected highland provinces. The focal distribution of malaria vectors in the highlands was the starting point for designing a targeted vector control strategy.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. METHODS: In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs.
OBJECTIVE: In Southeast Asia, malaria vectors bite outside the houses before bedtime, and forest dwellers rarely use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Thus, we tested the protection of long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIH) using Olyset technology against exophagic vectors in two forest villages of Cambodia. METHODS: In each village, we conducted two entomological surveys (middle and end of the rainy season), each lasting 10 consecutive nights. These comprised human landing collections during the whole night by people sitting outside in the hammocks.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the major species responsible for malaria transmission on the island of Príncipe, in the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP). Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been intensively deployed on the island, since 2003. Other measures included intermittent preventive therapy (IPT), since 2004, as well as artemisinin-based therapy (ACT) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from 2005.