Beneficence

Publication Title: 
Harefuah

Beneficence is considered a core principle of medical ethics. Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is used almost synonymously with beneficence and has become the gold standard of efficiency of conventional medicine. Conventional modern medicine and EBM in particular are based on what Heidegger called calculative thinking, whereas complementary medicine (CM) is often based on contemplative thinking according to Heidegger's distinction of different thinking processes. A central issue of beneficence is the striving for health and wellbeing.

Author(s): 
Oberbaum, Menachem
Gropp, Cornelius
Publication Title: 
The Hastings Center Report
Author(s): 
Emery, D. D.
Schneiderman, L. J.
Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

Disagreement over the legitimacy of direct sterilization continues within Catholic moral debate, with painful and at times confusing ramifications for Catholic healthcare systems. This paper argues that the medical profession should be construed as a key moral authority in this debate, on two grounds. First, the recent revival of neo-Aristotelianism in moral philosophy as applied to medical ethics has brought out the inherently moral dimensions of the history and current practice of medicine.

Author(s): 
Cowdin, Daniel M.
Tuohey, John F.
Publication Title: 
HEC forum: an interdisciplinary journal on hospitals' ethical and legal issues

Catholic healthcare institutions live amidst tension between three intersecting primary values, namely, a commitment of service to the poor and vulnerable, promoting the common good for all, and financially sustainability. Within this tension, the question sometimes arises as to whether it is ever justifiable, i.e., consistent with Catholic identity, to place limits on charity care. In this article we will argue that the health reform measures of the Affordable Care Act do not eliminate this tension but actually increase the urgency of addressing it.

Author(s): 
Slosar, John Paul
Repenshek, Mark F.
Bedford, Elliott
Publication Title: 
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy

This paper examines whether and to what extent parents are morally bound to seek reproductive genetic testing. It is concluded that, with rare exceptions, there is no requirement in parenting to seek or accept reproductive genetic testing if the only actions facilitated by such testing are abortion, selective conception or remaining childless. Commitments to other family members or to oneself can provide other, morally or prudentially compelling reasons to elect genetic testing and selective abortion in these circumstances.

Author(s): 
Faden, Ruth
Publication Title: 
Nursing Science Quarterly

Confucianism is one of the frequently mentioned social factors in the research of care for the older adults in East Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Although Confucian philosophy functions as a powerful source of reference for care, the context of care in Confucian texts is not yet largely studied in nursing. This column focuses on the meaning of care in two key Confucian texts, the Analects and Mencius. The context of care in Confucian texts should provide a sound foundation and substantial understanding for researchers studying care in East Asian society.

Author(s): 
Koh, Eun-Kang
Koh, Chin-Kang
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediators, finding that men's social dominance orientation (a competitive intergroup ideology) mediated the avoidance to hostile sexism link.

Author(s): 
Hart, Joshua
Hung, Jacqueline A.
Glick, Peter
Dinero, Rachel E.
Publication Title: 
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal

This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum.

Author(s): 
Fan, Ruiping
Publication Title: 
Ugeskrift for Laeger

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have indicated that the population in general perceives doctors as reliable. In the present study perceptions of reliability and kindness attributed to another socially significant archetype, Santa Claus, have been comparatively examined in relation to the doctor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 52 randomly chosen participants were shown a film, where a narrator dressed either as Santa Claus or as a doctor tells an identical story.

Author(s): 
Amin, Faisal Mohammad
West, Anders Sode
J¯rgensen, Carina Sleiborg
Simonsen, Sofie Amalie
Lindberg, Ulrich
Tranum-Jensen, J¯rgen
Hougaard, Anders
Publication Title: 
Human Brain Mapping

In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject.

Author(s): 
McAdams, Carrie J.
Lohrenz, Terry
Montague, P. Read

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