The effects of chronic administration of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil on the anesthetic effects of a novel specific alpha 2-receptor agonist (dexmedetomidine) were studied in rats. It is presumed that this agonist acts on both pre- and postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors. To determine whether the central postsynaptic receptors are involved in the anesthetic interactions between these drugs, rats were treated with DSP-4 to deplete endogenous norepinephrine. Loss of the righting reflex was used to determine the presence of anesthesia and the duration of hypnosis.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Adhatoda vasica Nees, Acanthaceae, is well known plant in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. The purpose of this study was to characterize the most bioactive phytochemicals viz., vasicine, vasicinone, vasicine acetate, 2-acetyl benzyl amine, vasicinolone present in the chloroform fraction having anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by using carrageenan and CFA-model induced paw oedema. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds was assessed by using the microdilution method.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The limited data that currently exist for the role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in neuropathic pain are conflicting. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that CaMKII is required for the maintenance of neuropathic pain in a rodent model of experimental mononeuropathy. Spinal nerve L(5)/L(6) ligation (SNL) was found to increase the spinal activity of CaMKII (pCaMKII) on the ipsilateral (but not contralateral) side.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Repeated administration of opioids not only leads to tolerance and dependence, but also results in nociceptive enhancement called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Nociceptive mediators involved in OIH generation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-depent protein kinase II (CaMKIIalpha) is critical for OIH. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia was produced by repeated morphine administration or pellet implantation in mice.
In folk medicine, Adhatoda vasica Ness. (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A. vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97 percent reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 microg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity.