Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic

Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Toxicology

An alcohol-sensitive rat line, selectively bred for high sensitivity to ethanol-induced motor impairment, also exhibits greater sensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor agonists, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, than an alcohol-insensitive rat line. We have investigated whether this difference was also maintained for the most recent intravenous anaesthetic, propofol. Propofol (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induced similar sleep times and produced identical plasma propofol concentrations in alcohol-sensitive and alcohol-insensitive rat lines.

Author(s): 
Yildirim, Y.
Niemi, L.
Wong, G.
Korpi, E. R.
Rosenberg, P. H.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The endoperoxides are a new class of antimalarial agents, of which artemisinin (qinghaosu) is the prototype. We have previously shown that artemisinin is capable of alkylating proteins in model reactions. In the present study, we showed that when Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes are treated with a radiolabeled antimalarial endoperoxide, either arteether, dihydroartemisinin, or Ro 42-1611 (arteflene), the radioactivity is largely coverted into a form which can be extracted with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).

Author(s): 
Asawamahasakda, W.
Ittarat, I.
Pu, Y. M.
Ziffer, H.
Meshnick, S. R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) is a synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial. The antimalarial activity of endoperoxides is attributed to iron(II)-mediated generation of carbon-centered radicals. An alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone (enone; 4-[2',4' bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-buten-2-one), obtained from arteflene by reaction with iron(II), was identified previously as the stable product of a reaction that, by inference, also yields a cyclohexyl radical. The activation of arteflene in vivo has been characterized with particular reference to enone formation.

Author(s): 
Bishop, L. P.
Maggs, J. L.
O'Neill, P. M.
Park, B. K.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Cell culture work suggests that signaling to polymerize cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) represents a required pathway for the optimal redistribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Recent in vitro study further suggests that the actin-regulatory neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) mediates the effect of insulin on the actin filament network. Here we tested whether similar cytoskeletal mechanics are essential for insulin-regulated glucose transport in isolated rat epitrochlearis skeletal muscle.

Author(s): 
Brozinick, Joseph T.
Hawkins, Eric D.
Strawbridge, Andrew B.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, has neuroprotective properties. Its mechanism of action is unknown but it was recently found to block GABA(A) receptors. The goal of this study was to test the potential role of a GABAergic mechanism for the neuroprotective activity of bilobalide. In rat hippocampal slices exposed to NMDA, release of choline indicates breakdown of membrane phospholipids. NMDA-induced choline release was almost completely blocked in the presence of bilobalide (10 microM) and under low-chloride conditions.

Author(s): 
Kiewert, Cornelia
Kumar, Vikas
Hildmann, Oksana
Rueda, Misty
Hartmann, Joachim
Naik, Runa S.
Klein, Jochen
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Alterations in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways have been implicated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology.

Author(s): 
Hubbard, Catherine S.
Labus, Jennifer S.
Bueller, Joshua
Stains, Jean
Suyenobu, Brandall
Dukes, George E.
Kelleher, Dennis L.
Tillisch, Kirsten
Naliboff, Bruce D.
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
HPB surgery: a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery

Norcantharidin is the demethylated form of Cantharidin, which is the active ingredient of the blister beetle, Mylabris, a long used Chinese traditional medicine. Though not well publicized outside China, Norcantharidin is known to possess significant anti-hepatoma activity, and is relatively free from side effects. In the present study, glucose oxidation in tumour and liver tissue slices harvested from hepatoma-bearing animals was quantified by measuring the radioactivity of 14C-labelled CO2 released from 14C-glucose in oxygen-enriched incubation medium.

Author(s): 
Mack, P.
Ha, X. F.
Cheng, L. Y.
Publication Title: 
Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR

BACKGROUND: Norcantharidin, the demethylated analog of cantharidin derived from a traditional Chinese medicine, Mylabris, has been used in the treatment of anti-cancer effects. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process are generally unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of NCTD-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay for cellular viability and by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species production was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis.

Author(s): 
Chang, Cheng
Zhu, You-Qing
Mei, Juan-Juan
Liu, Shi-Quan
Luo, Jun
Publication Title: 
Oncology Reports

Cancer metastasis is a highly coordinated and dynamic multistep process in which cancer cells interact with a variety of host cells. Morphological studies have documented the association of circulating tumor cells with host platelets, where a surface coating of platelets protects tumor cells from mechanical trauma and the immune system. Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine.

Author(s): 
Shou, Liu-Mei
Zhang, Qiong-Yan
Li, Wei
Xie, Xin
Chen, Kai
Lian, Lian
Li, Zhen-Yu
Gong, Fei-Ran
Dai, Ke-Sheng
Mao, Yi-Xiang
Tao, Min
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow.

Author(s): 
Brooks, Julie M.
Pershing, Michelle L.
Thomsen, Morten S.
Mikkelsen, Jens D.
Sarter, Martin
Bruno, John P.

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