Bile Acids and Salts

Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

Bile acids are detergent molecules derived from cholesterol in the liver that are important for the metabolism and absorption of lipids in the intestine. Bile acids are also steroid hormones activating specific nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptors. Conjugated bile acids are cytoprotective and anticarcinogenic. Bile acid synthesis and bile flow decreases markedly during aging.

Author(s): 
Kr¯ll, Jens
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Bile acids play multiple roles in the physiology of vertebrates; they facilitate lipid absorption, serve as signaling molecules to control carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and provide a disposal route for cholesterol. Unexpectedly, the ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase (Amacr) deficient mice, which are unable to complete the peroxisomal cleavage of C27-precursors to the mature C24-bile acids, are physiologically asymptomatic when maintained on a standard laboratory diet.

Author(s): 
Selk‰l‰, Eija M.
Kuusisto, Sanna M.
Salonurmi, Tuire
Savolainen, Markku J.
Jauhiainen, Matti
Piril‰, P‰ivi L.
Kvist, Ari-Pekka
Conzelmann, Ernst
Schmitz, Werner
Alexson, Stefan E.
Kotti, Tiina J.
Hiltunen, J. Kalervo
Autio, Kaija J.
Publication Title: 
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, and Chlorophytum borivilianum and seeds of Sesamum indicum are ayurvedic medicinal plants used in India to treat several ailments. Our previous studies indicated that these plants possess hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the composite effects of these plants on hypercholesterolemic rats.

Author(s): 
Visavadiya, Nishant P.
Narasimhacharya, A. V. R. L.
Publication Title: 
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, and Chlorophytum borivilianum and seeds of Sesamum indicum are ayurvedic medicinal plants used in India to treat several ailments. Our previous studies indicated that these plants possess hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the composite effects of these plants on hypercholesterolemic rats.

Author(s): 
Visavadiya, Nishant P.
Narasimhacharya, A. V. R. L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver is initiated by the rate-limiting enzyme cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and excretion of bile acids from the liver is mediated by the bile salt export pump (BSEP). The expression of CYP7A1 and BSEP is coordinately regulated by a negative feedback and positive feed-forward mechanism, respectively, through bile acid-mediated activation of farsenoid X receptor (FXR). It is well established that hypolipidemic agent guggulsterone is an FXR antagonist and down-regulates FXR target genes.

Author(s): 
Deng, Ruitang
Yang, Dongfang
Radke, Amy
Yang, Jian
Yan, Bingfang
Publication Title: 
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

Diabetes is a global epidemic. The recommended goals for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure are achieved only in a very small minority of patients. In this supplement to Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, we review the data showing that the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam lowers both HbA1c and LDL-C in patients with diabetes. These data make colesevelam an attractive therapy to get more patients to achieve their LDL-C and HbA1c goals.

Author(s): 
Jialal, I.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Ezetimibe (EZE) lowers serum lipid levels by blocking cholesterol uptake in the intestine. Disposition of EZE and its pharmacologically active glucuronide metabolite (EZE-GLUC) to the intestine is dependent on hepatobiliary efflux. Previous studies suggested that hepatic transporter expression and function may be altered during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether NASH-induced changes in the expression and function of hepatic transporters result in altered disposition of EZE and EZE-GLUC.

Author(s): 
Hardwick, Rhiannon N.
Fisher, Craig D.
Street, Stephanie M.
Canet, Mark J.
Cherrington, Nathan J.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The composite human microbiome of Western populations has probably changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia.

Author(s): 
Devkota, Suzanne
Wang, Yunwei
Musch, Mark W.
Leone, Vanessa
Fehlner-Peach, Hannah
Nadimpalli, Anuradha
Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.
Jabri, Bana
Chang, Eugene B.
Publication Title: 
Disease Models & Mechanisms

Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery.

Author(s): 
Cummings, Bethany P.
Bettaieb, Ahmed
Graham, James L.
Kim, Jaehyoung
Ma, Fangrui
Shibata, Noreene
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Giulivi, Cecilia
Hansen, Frederik
Jelsing, Jacob
Vrang, Niels
Kowala, Mark
Chouinard, Michael L.
Haj, Fawaz G.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The 7α-dehydroxylation of primary bile acids (BAs), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) into the secondary BAs, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), is a key function of the gut microbiota. We aimed at studying the linkage between fecal BAs and gut microbiota in cirrhosis since this could help understand cirrhosis progression. METHODS: Fecal microbiota were analyzed by culture-independent multitagged-pyrosequencing, fecal BAs using HPLC and serum BAs using LC-MS in controls, early (Child A) and advanced cirrhotics (Child B/C).

Author(s): 
Kakiyama, Genta
Pandak, William M.
Gillevet, Patrick M.
Hylemon, Phillip B.
Heuman, Douglas M.
Daita, Kalyani
Takei, Hajime
Muto, Akina
Nittono, Hiroshi
Ridlon, Jason M.
White, Melanie B.
Noble, Nicole A.
Monteith, Pamela
Fuchs, Michael
Thacker, Leroy R.
Sikaroodi, Masoumeh
Bajaj, Jasmohan S.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Bile Acids and Salts