Strains of Caenorhabditis elegans mutant for clk-1 exhibit a 20-40% increase in mean lifespan. clk-1 encodes a mitochondrial protein thought to be either an enzyme or regulatory molecule acting within the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway. Here CLK-1 is shown to be related to the ubiquinol oxidase, alternative oxidase, and belong to the functionally diverse di-iron-carboxylate protein family which includes bacterioferritin and methane mono-oxygenase.
The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that arise from mammary epithelial cells (MECs). One of the key early events in tumorigenic transformation is the ability of cells to overcome replicative senescence. However, the precise genetic changes that are responsible for this event in MECs is largely unknown. Here, we report that Bmi-1, originally identified as a c-Myc cooperating oncoprotein, can bypass senescence, extend the replicative life span, and immortalize MECs. Furthermore, Bmi-1 was overexpressed in immortal MECs and several breast cancer cell lines.
PURPOSE: Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein complexes found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In normal somatic cells these become shorter with each cell division and appear to control their replicative lifespan. However almost all tumours show activation of the enzyme telomerase, a specialised reverse transcriptase/DNA polymerase, that can add new telomeric repeats to the ends of chromosomes and this appears to be a key factor in the cell immortalization process.
The ID (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding) helix-loop-helix proteins are important mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types through regulation of gene expression. Overexpression of the ID proteins in normal human keratinocytes results in extension of culture lifespan, indicating that these proteins are important for epidermal differentiation. Our hypothesis is that the ID proteins are targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in keratinocytes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) is a transcription factor and tumor suppressor linked to longevity that determines cell fate through activating transcription of cell differentiation, survival, and apoptotic genes. Recruitment of the coactivator CBP/p300 is a crucial step in transcription, and we revealed that in addition to conserved region 3 (CR3) of FOXO3a, the C-terminal segment of CR2 (CR2C) binds CBP/p300 and contributes to transcriptional activity.
The AU-rich elements (AREs) encoded within many mRNA 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) are targets for factors that control transcript longevity and translational efficiency. Hsp70, best known as a protein chaperone with well-defined peptide-refolding properties, is known to interact with ARE-like RNA substrates in vitro. Here, we show that cofactor-free preparations of Hsp70 form direct, high-affinity complexes with ARE substrates based on specific recognition of U-rich sequences by both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains.
BACKGROUND: Metabolism of energy nutrients by the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is implicated in the aging process. Polymorphisms in core ETC proteins may have an effect on longevity. Here we investigate the cytochrome b (cytb) polymorphism at amino acid 7 (cytbI7T) that distinguishes human mitochondrial haplogroup H from haplogroup U. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared longevity of individuals in these two haplogroups during historical extremes of caloric intake.
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) orthologs are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate aging and longevity in model organisms. The mammalian Sir2 ortholog Sirt1 regulates metabolic and stress responses through the deacetylation of many transcriptional regulatory factors.
The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme telomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae adds telomeric DNA to chromosomal ends in short increments both in vivo and in vitro. Whether or not telomerase functions as a multimer has not been addressed previously. Here we show, first, that following polymerization, the telomerase RNP remains stably bound to its telomeric oligonucleotide reaction product. We then exploit this finding and a previously reported mutant telomerase RNA to demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the S.
Telomerase is a eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) whose specialized reverse transcriptase action performs de novo synthesis of one strand of telomeric DNA. The resulting telomerase-mediated elongation of telomeres, which are the protective end-caps for eukaryotic chromosomes, counterbalances the inevitable attrition from incomplete DNA replication and nuclease action.