Biological Availability

Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences

Piplartine (piperlongumine, 5,6-dihydro-1-[(2E)-1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone) is a biologically active alkaloid/amide from peppers, as from long pepper (Piper longum L. - Piperaceae). Long pepper is one of the most widely used in Ayurvedic medicine, which is used to treat many diseases, including tumors.

Author(s): 
Bezerra, Daniel P.
Pessoa, Claudia
de Moraes, Manoel O.
Saker-Neto, Nicolau
Silveira, Edilberto R.
Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.
Publication Title: 
Archivos Latinoamericanos De NutriciÛn

Iron is estimated to be deficient in the diets of one fifth of the world's population. Iron is commonly provided as a supplemental nutrient in industrialized countries for uses of choice. In other countries of the world, it may be required as an overt addition to the diet to prevent iron deficiency. This may be accomplished through fortification of a common food. As a micronutrient, iron has a relatively narrow range of safety--whether given as a supplement or fortificant, it must be in a high enough dose to be appreciably absorbed, but low enough to avoid toxicity.

Author(s): 
Jeppsen, R. B.
Publication Title: 
Nutrition and Health

What the World needs is an integrated and sustainable food policy that makes the best and most appropriate use of the technologies at our disposal to promote health and help prevent disease. Diet induced diseases account for the largest burden of chronic illnesses and health problems Worldwide. Historically a lack of knowledge about human nutritional requirements (including for the brain) helped promote diet induced disease. The scientific knowledge currently exists to help prevent many of the current deficiencies and imbalances in human diet.

Author(s): 
Robson, Anthony A.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research

There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases.

Author(s): 
Benzie, Iris F. F.
Choi, Siu-Wai
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

This study was undertaken to assess the bioequivalence between a new formulation of propofol 2% and the commercially available product Diprivan. Secondary objectives were to compare the times to onset of and emergence from hypnosis, the hemodynamic effects, and the safety profiles. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included in a randomized crossover study. Subjects were administered a 2-mg/kg single bolus injection of each formulation separated by a 7- to 10-day washout period. Plasma propofol was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

Author(s): 
Abad-Santos, Francisco
Gálvez-Múgica, M. Angeles
Santos, M. Angeles
Novalbos, Jesús
Gallego-Sandín, Sonia
Méndez, Paloma
Casimiro, Cesar
Gilsanz, Fernando
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

1. The pharmacokinetic and effect kinetic properties of oral (p.o.), intramuscular (i.m.), and intrarectal (i.r.) artemether (5 mg kg-1) were compared in a crossover study in eight healthy adult volunteers. Plasma concentrations of artemether (AM) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with reductive mode electrochemical detection (h.p.l.c.-ECD), and plasma antimalarial activity in vitro (effect) was assessed on the same samples by a sensitive bioassay (BA). 2.

Author(s): 
Teja-Isavadharm, P.
Nosten, F.
Kyle, D. E.
Luxemburger, C.
ter Kuile, F.
Peggins, J. O.
Brewer, T. G.
White, N. J.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each drug. Measurement of artemisinin concentrations was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

Author(s): 
Dien, T. K.
de Vries, P. J.
Khanh, N. X.
Koopmans, R.
Binh, L. N.
Duc, D. D.
Kager, P. A.
van Boxtel, C. J.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Artemisinin is mainly eliminated by hepatic transformation. To investigate whether the clearance of artemisinin in patients with liver cirrhosis is different from healthy volunteers, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in male Vietnamese patients with Child B cirrhosis of the liver who received 500 mg of artemisinin orally. The results were compared to those found in a previous study in healthy subjects. The mean (+/- SD) area under the concentration time curve was 2365 (+/- 1761) h ng/ml; the mean (+/- SD) clearance, 382 (+/- 303)L/h.

Author(s): 
de Vries, P. J.
Nguyen, X. K.
Tran, K. D.
Le Nguyen, B.
Nguyen, T. Y.
Dao, D. D.
van Boxtel, C. J.
Kager, P. A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in Plasmodium vivax infections, 12 male Vietnamese adults with slide-positive vivax malaria received either intravenous ARTS (120 mg; group 1) or oral ARTS (100 mg; group 2) with the alternative preparation given 8 hr later in a randomized, open, cross-over study.

Author(s): 
Batty, K. T.
Le, A. T.
Ilett, K. F.
Nguyen, P. T.
Powell, S. M.
Nguyen, C. H.
Truong, X. M.
Vuong, V. C.
Huynh, V. T.
Tran, Q. B.
Nguyen, V. M.
Davis, T. M.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

The objective of this study was to investigate whether the decrease in artemisinin bioavailability after repeated oral dosing in humans can be a result of increased efflux of artemisinin by P-glycoprotein or decreased membrane transport at the intestinal barrier. The effective jejunal permeability (Peff) of artemisinin was investigated using an in situ rat perfusion model. Fifty-four rats were randomized to one of three treatment arms: no pretreatment, pretreatment with artemisinin emulsion for 5 days (60 mg/kg/day, p.o. ), or pretreatment with emulsion vehicle for 5 days.

Author(s): 
Svensson, U. S.
Sandström, R.
Carlborg, O.
Lennernäs, H.
Ashton, M.

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