Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors, such as genetics, diet, estrogen use, and bone density, and local biomechanical factors, such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity. These risk factors are particularly important in the weight-bearing joints, and modifying them may help prevent osteoarthritis-related pain and disability.
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in older adults (?60) in the UK. If nonsurgical management fails and if OA severity becomes too great, knee arthroplasty is a preferred treatment choice. Preoperative physiotherapy is often offered as part of rehabilitation to improve postoperative patient-based outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Systematically review whether preoperative physiotherapy improves postoperative, patient-based outcomes in older adults who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare study interventions to best-practice guidelines.
PURPOSE: To investigate the migratory and contractile behavior of isolated human corneal fibroblasts in fibrillar collagen matrices. METHODS: A telomerase-infected, extended-lifespan human corneal fibroblast cell line (HTK) was transfected by using a vector for enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-alpha-actinin. Cells were plated at low density on top of or within 100-microm-thick fibrillar collagen lattices. After 18 hours to 7 days, time-lapse imaging was performed.
The use of Fuji films is simple but their manipulation and result interpretation seem to be difficult in the framework of medical research. The reliability and reproducibility of Fuji films have been proved by many previous studies. This study was undertaken to know precisely the articular zones of the elbow and to determine the compressive stress these areas undergo during different activities, in order to assess the importance of different articular contact areas.
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the role patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics may play in development of anterior knee pain (AKP) in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: Knees from individuals with diagnosed CP (n=20) and control knees (n=40) were evaluated. Controls were matched for sex and age based on the group average. Matching by height and weight was a secondary priority. Subjects in the control cohort were asymptomatic with no history of lower leg abnormalities, surgery, or major injury.
Applied kinesiology is a technique used to assess nutritional status on the basis of the response of muscles to mechanical stress. In this study, 11 subjects were evaluated independently by three experienced applied kinesiologists for four nutrients (thiamin, zinc, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid). The results obtained by those applied kinesiologists were compared with (a) one another, (b) standard laboratory tests for nutrient status, and (c) computerized isometric muscle testing.
Hypnosis has been used for many years in the treatment of asthma, but studies of its usefulness have been controversial. We assessed the efficacy of hypnosis in attenuating exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in 10 stable asthmatics. The subjects ran on a treadmill while mouth breathing for 6 min on 5 different days. Pulmonary mechanics were measured before and after each challenge. Two control exercise challenges resulted in a reproducible decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).
The perception of effort during exercise and its relationship to fatigue is still not well understood. Although several scales have been developed to quantify exertion Borg's 15-point ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale has been adopted as a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating whole body exertion during exercise. However, Borg's category-ratio scale is useful in quantifying sensations of exertion related to those variables that rise exponentially with increases in exercise intensity.
Subjects highly (Highs) and low susceptible to hypnosis (Lows) show different imagery and attentional capabilities and also peculiar somatomotor, vegetative and electroencephalographic differences in basal and task conditions. Since attention is one of the main component of hypnotic susceptibility and also a relevant factor for postural control, the aim of the experiment was to study actual differences between Highs and Lows at the eyes closure during upright stance. Visual and motor imagery as well as attentional/disattentional capabilities were evaluated through psychological tests.
The aim of the experiment was to study possible differences between the kinematic strategies for the "involuntary" arm lowering of hypnotized highly susceptible subjects (H-Highs) and for the voluntary movement of non-hypnotizable simulators (Sims) during suggestions of arm heaviness (Part I). In addition, a comparison between awake susceptible subjects (W-Highs) and H-Highs was carried out to clarify the specific role of the hypnotic state and hypnotizability (Part II).