Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association

In this article, we have identified some of the ethical considerations related to evidence-based practice and surrounding issues as they bear on occupational therapy and rehabilitation. We acknowledge that practitioners are professionally and morally obligated to ensure that their decisions are informed and reflect best practices. Further, we recognize the value of encouraging practitioners to assume responsibility for searching and appraising available evidence so that informed options can be shared with patients. Table 1 summarizes the ethical considerations in evidence-based practice.

Author(s): 
Christiansen, C.
Lou, J. Q.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether, and if so, how published sham-controlled trials of acupuncture report on the information given to patients about true and sham interventions. We asked acupuncture therapists to provide original patient information leaflets in order to study how interventions were described in more detail.

Author(s): 
Linde, Klaus
Dincer, Figen
Publication Title: 
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal

Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue.

Author(s): 
Campbell, Courtney S.
Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

Discussions of genetic enhancements often imply deep suspicions about human desires to manipulate or enhance the course of our future. These unspoken assumptions about the arrogance of the quest for perfection are at odds with the normally hopeful resonancy we find in contemporary theology. The author argues that these fears, suspicions and accusations are misplaced. The problem lies not with the question of whether we should pursue perfection, but rather what perfection we are pursuing.

Author(s): 
Keenan, James F.
Publication Title: 
Origins

A conflict of interest in scientific and medical research "between the investigation and correct treatment of illness ... and the financial objective of making a profit" was addressed in a papal message to an April 5-6 international conference on conflicts of interest in science and medicine sponsored by the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Vatican released the papal message April 11, which was addressed as a letter to Archbishop Jozef Kowalczyk, apostolic nuncio to Poland.

Author(s): 
Pope John Paul II, null
Publication Title: 
University of Toledo Law Review. University of Toledo. College of Law

This essay reviews how cloning techniques may be used for therapeutic purposes, analyzes ethical implications, and makes recommendations for public policy discourse. Although cloning may bring many potential benefits, they remain uncertain. Furthermore, human embryo research is morally problematic. Therefore, alternatives to human cloning for therapeutic aims should be sought at present. In addition to central ethical issues, public discourse should maintain an emphasis on the value of the human embryo over scientific expediency, the relativity of health, and the principle of justice.

Author(s): 
Hanson, M. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics

Patents for genetic material in the industrialized North have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene sequences, engineered crop species, and the technical processes to engineer them. Most critics have addressed the human and ecosystem health implications of genetically engineered crops, but these broad patents raise economic issues as well.

Author(s): 
Warner, K. D.
Publication Title: 
Health care ethics USA: a publication of the Center for Health Care Ethics

Organizations, particularly Catholic hospitals, schools and social service agencies, should re-examine their relationships to health and medical charities promoting unethical research such as human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. Part 6 of the Ethical and Religious Directives provides a helpful framework for ethical analysis and action.

Author(s): 
Brehany, John
Publication Title: 
Ethics & Behavior

Religious traditions can be drawn on in a number of ways to illuminate discussions of the moral standing of animals and the ethical use of animals in scientific research. I begin with some general comments about relevant points in the history of major religions. I then briefly describe American civil religion, including the cult of health, and its relation to scientific research. Finally, I offer a critique of American civil religion from a Christian perspective.

Author(s): 
Smith, David H.
Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

The author argues that to think theologically about genetic enhancement is to think prayerfully about how to locate all one's uses of medicine, recognizing that they must all be lodged in the Christian struggle to holiness. He is critical of the essays in this issue because they often appear to take on a scholastic life of their own outside of the all-consuming struggle to salvation of Christians across the millennia.

Author(s): 
Engelhardt, H. Tristram

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