Biosynthetic Pathways

Publication Title: 
Cell

Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans.

Author(s): 
Denzel, Martin S.
Storm, Nadia J.
Gutschmidt, Aljona
Baddi, Ruth
Hinze, Yvonne
Jarosch, Ernst
Sommer, Thomas
Hoppe, Thorsten
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Cell

The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates metabolites for protein N- and O-glycosylation. Wang et al. and Denzel et al. report a hitherto unknown link between the HBP and stress in the endoplasmic reticulum. These studies establish the HBP as a critical component of the cellular machinery of protein homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Vincenz, Lisa
Hartl, F. Ulrich
Publication Title: 
Cell

Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans.

Author(s): 
Denzel, Martin S.
Storm, Nadia J.
Gutschmidt, Aljona
Baddi, Ruth
Hinze, Yvonne
Jarosch, Ernst
Sommer, Thomas
Hoppe, Thorsten
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Current Medicinal Chemistry

Artemisinin the sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone extracted from the herb Artemisia annua, remains the basis for the current preferred treatment against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, artemisinin and its derivatives show additional anti-parasite, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. Widespread use of this valuable secondary metabolite has been hampered by low production in vivo and high cost of chemical synthesis in vitro. Novel production methods are required to accommodate the ever-growing need for this important drug.

Author(s): 
Arsenault, Patrick R.
Wobbe, Kristin K.
Weathers, Pamela J.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Plant

Plants of Artemisia annua produce artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a sesquiterpene synthase, and CYP71AV1, a P450 monooxygenase, are two key enzymes of the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. Accumulation of artemisinin can be induced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). Here, we report the characterization of two JA-responsive AP2 family transcription factors--AaERF1 and AaERF2--from A. annua L. Both genes were highly expressed in inflorescences and strongly induced by JA.

Author(s): 
Yu, Zong-Xia
Li, Jian-Xu
Yang, Chang-Qing
Hu, Wen-Li
Wang, Ling-Jian
Chen, Xiao-Ya
Publication Title: 
Genetics and molecular research: GMR

Finding an efficient and affordable treatment against malaria is still a challenge for medicine. Artemisinin is an effective anti-malarial drug isolated from Artemisia annua. However, the artemisinin content of A. annua is very low. We used transgenic technology to increase the artemisinin content of A. annua by overexpressing cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cyp71av1) and cytochrome P450 reductase (cpr) genes. CYP71AV1 is a key enzyme in the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway, while CPR is a redox partner for CYP71AV1. Eight independent transgenic A.

Author(s): 
Shen, Q.
Chen, Y. F.
Wang, T.
Wu, S. Y.
Lu, X.
Zhang, L.
Zhang, F. Y.
Jiang, W. M.
Wang, G. F.
Tang, K. X.
Publication Title: 
Acta Biochimica Polonica

Curcumin, known for thousands of years as an Ayurvedic medicine, and popular as a spice in Asian cuisine, has undergone in recent times remarkable transformation into a drug candidate with prospective multipotent therapeutic applications. Characterized by high chemical reactivity, resulting from an extended conjugated double bond system prone to nucleophilic attack, curcumin has been shown to interact with a plethora of molecular targets, in numerous experimental observations based on spectral, physicochemical or biological principles.

Author(s): 
Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz
Ślifirski, Piotr
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Withania somnifera is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicine systems due to bioactive molecules known as withanolides. As genomic information regarding this plant is very limited, little information is available about biosynthesis of withanolides. To facilitate the basic understanding about the withanolide biosynthesis pathways, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Withania leaf (101L) and root (101R) which specifically synthesize withaferin A and withanolide A, respectively.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Parul
Goel, Ridhi
Pathak, Sumya
Srivastava, Apeksha
Singh, Surya Pratap
Sangwan, Rajender Singh
Asif, Mehar Hasan
Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar
Publication Title: 
Acta Biochimica Polonica

Curcumin, known for thousands of years as an Ayurvedic medicine, and popular as a spice in Asian cuisine, has undergone in recent times remarkable transformation into a drug candidate with prospective multipotent therapeutic applications. Characterized by high chemical reactivity, resulting from an extended conjugated double bond system prone to nucleophilic attack, curcumin has been shown to interact with a plethora of molecular targets, in numerous experimental observations based on spectral, physicochemical or biological principles.

Author(s): 
Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz
Ślifirski, Piotr
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Withania somnifera is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicine systems due to bioactive molecules known as withanolides. As genomic information regarding this plant is very limited, little information is available about biosynthesis of withanolides. To facilitate the basic understanding about the withanolide biosynthesis pathways, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Withania leaf (101L) and root (101R) which specifically synthesize withaferin A and withanolide A, respectively.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Parul
Goel, Ridhi
Pathak, Sumya
Srivastava, Apeksha
Singh, Surya Pratap
Sangwan, Rajender Singh
Asif, Mehar Hasan
Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

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