Biotransformation

Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Author(s): 
Visek, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

Hormesis refers to the beneficial effects of a treatment that at a higher intensity is harmful. In one form of hormesis, sublethal exposure to stressors induces a response that results in stress resistance. The principle of stress-response hormesis is increasingly finding application in studies of aging, where hormetic increases in life span have been seen in several animal models.

Author(s): 
Gems, David
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology
Author(s): 
Morita, K.
Yamamoto, I.
Iwata, H.
Publication Title: 
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

The effect of various nucleotides and adenosine on the hepatic biotransformation of hexobarbital sodium (HB) and p-chloro-N-methylaniline (PCMA) was determined in male rats. Intraperitoneal administration of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (DBcAMP), alone and in combination with theophylline, and the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-theophylline combination prolonged HB sleeping time by more than 70%.

Author(s): 
Weiner, M.
Publication Title: 
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology

Pretreatment of rats with cadmium potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic hexobarbital metabolism in male and female rats. In contrast, treatment with cadmium pe and female rats. Thus, sex-related differences in cadmium inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism is apparently substrate dependent.

Author(s): 
Pence, D. H.
Schnell, R. C.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The duration of hexobarbital hypnosis was determined for individual male CFN rats at three month intervals over their total adult lifespan. The mean duration of hexobarbital hypnosis for the cohort linearly with advancing age. However, the sleeptimes for individual rats fell into one of four categories (gradual increase, terminal step increase, no change, or not possible to assign) when assigned as a function of duration of response to the barbiturate over the lifespan of the animals.

Author(s): 
Baird, M. B.
Publication Title: 
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology

Pretreatment of male rats with phenobarbital markedly decreases while treatment with manganese prolongs the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis in male rats. When both agents were administered simultaneously, the manganese-induced prolongation of hexobarbital was prevented.

Author(s): 
Deimling, M. J.
Schnell, R. C.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

Midazolam is an imidazobenzodiazepine with unique properties when compared with other benzodiazepines. It is water soluble in its acid formulation but is highly lipid soluble in vivo. Midazolam also has a relatively rapid onset of action and high metabolic clearance when compared with other benzodiazepines. The drug produces reliable hypnosis, amnesia, and antianxiety effects when administered orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously.

Author(s): 
Reves, J. G.
Fragen, R. J.
Vinik, H. R.
Greenblatt, D. J.
Publication Title: 
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology

Pretreatment of rats with doxapram (20 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic hexobarbital metabolism in female rats but not male rats. These data show that there is a sex-related difference in the ability of doxapram to alter both the drug response and hepatic drug metabolism in rats.

Author(s): 
Ishikawa, M.
Ozaki, M.
Takayanagi, Y.
Sasaki, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics

Following in vivo treatment with carrageenan, sex-related differences in alteration of hepatic drug metabolism were found in the rat. In adult male rats, marked decreases were observed in hepatic 9000 x g supernatant cytochrome P-450 content and in the biotransformation of hexobarbital, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, and meperidine. Hexobarbital hypnosis was significantly prolonged by carrageenan treatment in intact and testectomized animals as compared to their respective controls.

Author(s): 
Ishikawa, M.
Sasaki, K.
Ozaki, M.
Takayanagi, Y.
Sasaki, K.

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