Birth Rate

Publication Title: 
Recenti Progressi in Medicina

The 20th century will be remembered for its technological and scientific discoveries and for the exceptional changes in the demographic structure brought about by these and the improved economic and social conditions; in fact, the reduction in the birth rate and a fall in the death rate have caused an increase in the population of the elderly.

Cicconetti, Paolo
Riolo, Noemi
Ettorre, Evaristo
Costarella, Marianna
Priami, Carolina
Marigliano, Vincenzo
Publication Title: 
Human Biology

The purpose of this study was to review published studies on the variability of age at menarche and age at menopause throughout the world, and to identify the main causes for age variation in the timing of these events. We first present a summary table including mean (or median) values of the age at menarche in 67 countries, and of the age at menopause in 26 countries.

Thomas, F.
Renaud, F.
Benefice, E.
de Mee¸s, T.
Guegan, J. F.
Publication Title: 
La Revue Du Praticien
Belmin, JoÎl
Konrat, CÈcile
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Reproductive Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine the rate of spontaneous twinning in selected countries in order to evaluate the impact of environmental stress and related socioeconomic factors on balancing reproductive activity and longevity. STUDY DESIGN: Four countries with similar ancestry were considered, 2 in Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. Data on gross domestic product per capita, as a measure of indigenous conditions, access to proper diet, health care, sanitation and shelter were compared with the relative rate of twinning.

Steinman, Gary
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups.

Catoire, Patrick
Delaunay, Laurent
Dannappel, Thomas
Baracchini, Dominique
Marcadet-Fredet, Sabine
Moreau, Olivier
Pacaud, Luc
Przyrowski, Daniel
Marret, Emmanuel
Publication Title: 
Research in Population Economics
Spitze, G. D.
Waite, L. J.
Publication Title: 
In'gu Pog?n Nonjip = Journal of Population and Health Studies
Kong, S. K.
Cho, A. J.
Publication Title: 
The Nursing Clinics of North America

The aforementioned social trends affecting women, including women in poverty, women in the labor force, and elderly women, are all ultimately related to problems of access to health care. In almost every age group, women use more health and medical services. Women are hospitalized more often, although their stays in hospitals tend to be shorter. Women also make more visits to health care providers for preventive health care, such as examinations and dental care. Access to care, however, is tied to ability to pay for the care.

Leslie, L. A.
Swider, S. M.
Publication Title: 
Children in the Tropics
Chauliac, M.
Masse-raimbault, A. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research
Rohatgi, K.
Rohatgi, P. K.


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