Birth Weight

Publication Title: 
Diabetologia

We review the progress in testing the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Many human epidemiological studies both by ourselves and others have confirmed and extended the original observations on which the hypothesis was based. We are not aware of any contradictory findings and we emphasise the strength of the association between birth weight and the subsequent development of the metabolic syndrome. We have worked extensively experimentally to test the hypothesis in a rat model in which pregnant and/or lactating dams are fed a diet moderately restricted in proteins.

Author(s): 
Hales, C. N.
Ozanne, S. E.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

OBJECTIVE: In adults, one of the major determinants of leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a predictor of age-related diseases and mortality, is cumulative psychosocial stress exposure. More recently we reported that exposure to maternal psychosocial stress during intrauterine life is associated with LTL in young adulthood. The objective of the present study was to determine how early in life this effect of stress on LTL is apparent by quantifying the association of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with newborn telomere length.

Author(s): 
Entringer, Sonja
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Buss, Claudia
Shahbaba, Babak
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Simhan, Hyagriv N.
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

OBJECTIVE: In adults, one of the major determinants of leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a predictor of age-related diseases and mortality, is cumulative psychosocial stress exposure. More recently we reported that exposure to maternal psychosocial stress during intrauterine life is associated with LTL in young adulthood. The objective of the present study was to determine how early in life this effect of stress on LTL is apparent by quantifying the association of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with newborn telomere length.

Author(s): 
Entringer, Sonja
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Buss, Claudia
Shahbaba, Babak
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Simhan, Hyagriv N.
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Schizophrenia, autism and depression do not inherit by Mendel's law, and the search for a genetic basis seems unsuccessful. Schizophrenia and autism relate to low birth weight and pregnancy complications, which are associated with developmental adaptations by "programming". Epigenetics might constitute the basis of programming and depend on folate status and one-carbon metabolism in general.

Author(s): 
Muskiet, Frits A. J.
Kemperman, Ramses F. J.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Epidemiological data have linked an adverse fetal environment with increased risks of cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Prenatal stress and/or glucocorticoid excess might underlie this link.

Author(s): 
Seckl, Jonathan R.
Meaney, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Eating Disorders

OBJECTIVE: To depict the processes through which animals and human beings engage their environment in continuously evolving states of conflict and cooperation. METHOD: Descriptive literature review. RESULTS: Life history outcomes are more relative than they are absolute. Genetic variations play a crucial role, but heavily influencing behavioral outcomes, psychopathology included, are external cues that epigenetically remodel DNA along experience-dependent signaling pathways. The result is phenotypes that either optimize adjustment, or constrain it.

Author(s): 
Strober, Michael
Peris, Tara
Steiger, Howard
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physical Anthropology

The impact of stress on human health is a topic of wide-spread relevance and one that is particularly amenable to multidisciplinary investigation. Stress impacts both our psychological and physical health and, thus, may leave evidence on our psyche, our physical body and our genome. We are interested in the effect of extreme stressors, such as war, on health from the perspective of long-term and multigenerational effects. We integrate sociocultural, biological, and epigenetic data from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Author(s): 
Rodney, Nicole C.
Mulligan, Connie J.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3) were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ) twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance.

Author(s): 
CÛrdova-Palomera, Aldo
Alemany, Silvia
FatjÛ-Vilas, Mar
Goldberg, Ximena
Leza, Juan Carlos
Gonz·lez-Pinto, Ana
Nenadic, Igor
FaÒan·s, Lourdes
Publication Title: 
Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge.

Author(s): 
Chiarella, Julian
Tremblay, Richard E.
Szyf, Moshe
ProvenÁal, Nadine
Booij, Linda
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Author(s): 
Gross, H. N.
Posner, N. A.

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