Three experiments were conducted to examine eye-blink activity during the hypnotic state. The results were as follows: (1) eye-blink rate was dramatically reduced during the hypnotic as compared to the nonhypnotic state, (2) blink-rate variability between events (for example, the task and rest period) was smaller under the hypnotic than under the nonhypnotic state, (3) decrements, after induction of hypnosis, were observed in all aspects of blink-wave attributes (amplitude, duration, slope, and area).
The effects of a pure benzodiazepine antagonist (Flumazenil) on the responses R1 and R2 of the blink reflex, psychomotor tests, and Event Related Potentials (ERP), in six healthy volunteers sedated with Midazolam have been compared. Measurements were made during each of four successive phases. Phase 0 corresponded to control recordings. Midazolam was administered rapidly during phase 1 and slowly during phase 2. Phase 3 corresponded to spontaneous waking once the administration of Midazolam had been stopped. Flumazenil was administered during phase 2.
Using the Stephens anaesthetic apparatus-which is a closed system with an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer-and isoflurane as anaesthetic gas, 18 rabbits were anaesthetized and showed sufficient hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation during bone surgery. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with intravenous propofol and all rabbits were intubated afterwards.
The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory ERP, reflecting the preattentive discrimination of change in stimulus flow, in normal baseline state and under hypnosis. It has been proposed that the frontal inhibition associated with hypnosis can be measured as a decrease in MMN. ERPs were elicited using the passive oddball paradigm with standard and deviant sine tone stimuli of 500 and 553Hz, respectively. The measurement was repeated in five separate sessions.
BACKGROUND: Etomidate-associated hypnosis has only been studied using standard clinical criteria and raw EEG variables. We conducted a BIS-based investigation of etomidate induction of general anaesthesia. METHODS: Thirty hydroxyzine-premedicated ASA I patients were randomly allocated to receive etomidate 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg kg(-1) intravenously over 30 s. The BIS was continuously recorded. A tourniquet was placed on a lower limb to record purposeful movements and myoclonia. Tracheal intubation was facilitated using rocuronium 0.6 mg kg(-1) when the BIS value was 50.
OBJECTIVE: This study contrasted the effect of hypnosis on self-reported pain and changes in a nociceptive brainstem reflex, the blink reflex (BR), in 39 women with temporomandibular disorder. METHODS: The patients were randomized to hypnosis or control (nonhypnotic relaxation). Pain intensity was assessed 3 times daily on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. BRs were elicited by electrical stimulation with a nociceptive-specific electrode and recorded before and after treatment at pain threshold (Ip) and supra threshold (2×Ip).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity and symptom severity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) are both exacerbated by stress. The eye-blink startle response represents a noninvasive measure of central defensive responding. Evidence for central hyperexcitability was studied in IBS patients by examining potentiation of the startle reflex to a nociceptive threat.
The present study examined whether a moderately aversive abdominal threat would lead to greater enhancement in affect- and pain-related defensive responding as indexed by the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) in women compared to men. We also predicted sex differences in threat-related autonomic arousal measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs) to acoustic startle and noxious sural nerve stimulation.
Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Recent epidemiologic studies quote a prevalence of 5,2% to 63% for dry eye depending on definition. Many risk factors have been identified, among other things the female gender. Dry eye interferes significantly with quality of live. Measurement of the change in temperature and humidity during blinking turned out to be a reliable diagnostic tool. Videokeratoscopy explains well-known visual impairments related to dry eye and, along with lipid film interferometry, provides insight into tear film dynamics. The importance of tear film proteins is underestimated.
BACKGROUND: Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders.