Body Constitution

Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Starting from young to very old subjects, aging is associated with a progressive remodeling. Such an age-dependent remodeling process mainly affects anthropometrics, endocrine and thus, also metabolic factors. Interestingly, it occurs in some individuals successfully, while in others unsuccessfully. Centenarians in good health conditions are a very selected group of subjects representing an exceptional condition. Why the centenarians reach the extreme human life span is still unknown.

Author(s): 
Barbieri, M.
Gambardella, A.
Paolisso, G.
Varricchio, M.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Because migration is such a widespread phenomenon, studies of the effects of accompanying life change on the health and well-being of the migrant have special significance in areas like California that support large migrant communities. Previous studies have shown that increased weight and elevated blood pressure may be linked to changes in diet, exercise habits, and the altered sociocultural milieu of the migrant.

Author(s): 
Pawson, I. G.
Janes, G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

We determined whether size, an indirect measure of teneral energy reserves, modifies the fitness advantage (sigma survival x egg production/female/day) conferred to female Aedes aegypti (L.) maintained on human blood over cohorts fed human blood plus sugar. Different sized females were obtained by rearing them at different larval densities and with different amounts of food per larva. Each female in 4 treatment groups of 23 mosquitoes each was maintained in a separate cage.

Author(s): 
Naksathit, A. T.
Scott, T. W.
Publication Title: 
Acta Medica Okayama

Life expectancy, mortality and longevity data related to height and body size for various US and world population samples are reviewed. Research on energy restriction, smaller body size and longevity is also examined. Information sources include various medical and scientific journals, books and personal communications with researchers. Additional information is presented based on research involving eight populations of the world noted for their health, vigor and longevity. This information includes the findings of one of the authors who led research teams to study these populations.

Author(s): 
Samaras, T. T.
Elrick, H.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Regression analyses of primate life spans on recently revised female body and brain masses of Old World primates predict a human life span of between 72 years and 91 years-estimates that exceed the age of human menopause (and prior estimates) by well over 20 years. The life spans predicted from body and brain sizes in the early Homo suggest that postreproductive life spans predate Homo sapiens Among anthropoid primates, residual longevity after body and brain effects are controlled is greatest for Homo and for the New World monkeys of the genus Cebus.

Author(s): 
Judge, D. S.
Carey, J. R.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

Anthropological evidence suggests that regional differences in eating practices may be characterized by sub-ethnicity. Hakka is one sub-ethnicity who still retain a unique way of life in China. A field survey on diet and health among the Hakka people was undertaken in 1994. Approximately 200 participants were interviewed for their medical history, life-style and food habits. Blood pressure, body mass index, blood sample, 24 h urine and electrocardiogram were collected. The food samples taken from one tenth of the participants were analyzed for the ingredients in their daily meals.

Author(s): 
Liu, X. Q.
Li, Y. H.
Publication Title: 
The Milbank Quarterly

Aging can be slowed in laboratory rodents by low-calorie diets, and changes in single genes can extend mouse life span by 40 percent or more. Therefore, despite its surface complexity and effects on multiple cells and intercellular systems, aging in mammals might also be retarded by both genetic and nongenetic means. If human aging could be slowed pharmacologically to the extent now possible in rodents, the effect on healthy life expectancy would exceed that of abolishing cancer, cardiovascular disease, and adult-onset diabetes.

Author(s): 
Miller, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Excessive central fat puts one at greater risk of disease. In animal studies, stress-induced cortisol secretion has been shown to increase central fat. The objective of this study was to assess whether women with central fat distribution (as indicated by a high waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]), across a range of body mass indexes, display consistently heightened cortisol reactivity to repeated laboratory stressors.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. S.
McEwen, B.
Seeman, T.
Matthews, K.
Castellazzo, G.
Brownell, K. D.
Bell, J.
Ickovics, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Author(s): 
Epel, E.
Adler, N.
Ickovics, J.
McEwen, B.
Publication Title: 
Obesity Research

OBJECTIVE: A previous study in our laboratory (Moyer et al., Obes Res. 1994;2:255-62 found that, in response to uncontrollable laboratory stress, women with a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) had higher cortisol reactivity, poorer coping skills, and lower anger responses than women with low WHR. We aimed to compare high WHR men's stress responses to these women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The current study examined cortisol reactivity and psychological data of 27 healthy high WHR men exposed to the same laboratory challenges as the women from our previous study.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. E.
Moyer, A. E.
Martin, C. D.
Macary, S.
Cummings, N.
Rodin, J.
Rebuffe-Scrive, M.

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