Body Fat Distribution

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Adiponectin, a physiologically active polypeptide secreted by adipocytes, shows insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties in rodents and humans. To assess the effects of chronic hyperadiponectinemia on metabolic phenotypes, we established three lines of transgenic mice expressing human adiponectin in the liver.

Otabe, Shuichi
Yuan, Xiaohong
Fukutani, Tomoka
Wada, Nobuhiko
Hashinaga, Toshihiko
Nakayama, Hitomi
Hirota, Naotoshi
Kojima, Masayasu
Yamada, Kentaro
Publication Title: 
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association

There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio.

Tracy, Brian L.
Hart, Cady E. F.
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

As HAART becomes more accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, metabolic syndromes, body fat redistribution (BFR), and cardiovascular disease may become more prevalent. We conducted a 6-month, randomized controlled trial to test whether cardiorespiratory exercise training (CET), improves metabolic, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in HAART-treated HIV(+) African subjects with BFR.

Mutimura, Eugene
Crowther, Nigel J.
Cade, Todd W.
Yarasheski, Kevin E.
Stewart, Aimee
Publication Title: 
Journal of Women's Health (2002)

OBJECTIVE: Centralized adiposity, insulin resistance, excess iron, and elevated oxidative stress place postmenopausal women at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship among excess iron, oxidative stress, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. METHODS: The parent project recruited healthy women for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial designed to examine the effect of soy isoflavones on bone.

Crist, Betsy L.
Alekel, D. Lee
Ritland, Laura M.
Hanson, Laura N.
Genschel, Ulrike
Reddy, Manju B.
Publication Title: 
Antiviral Therapy

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) are important screening tools for sleep disordered breathing (SDB); however, the utility of anthropometry for this purpose has not been evaluated among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: HIV-negative men (n=60), HIV-positive men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HIV-positive/HAART; n=58) and HIV-positive men not receiving HAART (HIV-positive/no HAART; n=41) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study underwent a nocturnal sleep study and anthropomorphic assessment.

Brown, Todd T.
Patil, Susheel P.
Jacobson, Lisa P.
Margolick, Joseph B.
Laffan, Alison M.
Godfrey, Rebecca J.
Johnson, Jacquett R.
Johnson-Hill, Lisette M.
Reynolds, Sandra M.
Schwartz, Alan R.
Smith, Philip L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pediatrics

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of massage on weight gain and body fat deposition in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants (29-32 weeks) were randomized to the massage group (n = 22, 12 girls, 10 boys) or the control group (n = 22, 12 girls, 10 boys). Treatment was masked with massage or control care administered twice-daily by licensed massage therapists (6 d/wk for 4 weeks). Body weight, length, Ponderal Index (PI), body circumferences, and skinfold thickness (triceps, mid-thigh, and subscapular [SSF]) were measured.

Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J.
Haley, Shannon
Slater, Hillarie
Beachy, Joanna
Smith, Sandra L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes.

Sinclair, Liam A.
Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M. P. B.
Wilkinson, Robert G.
de Veth, Michael J.
Bauman, Dale E.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: The composition of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) in the maternal diet may affect obesity risk in the mother's offspring. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a reduction in the n-6 (omega-6):n-3 (omega-3) LCPUFA ratio in the diet of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers may prevent expansive adipose tissue growth in their infants during the first year of life.

Hauner, Hans
Much, Daniela
Vollhardt, Christiane
Brunner, Stefanie
Schmid, Daniela
Sedlmeier, Eva-Maria
Heimberg, Ellen
Schuster, Tibor
Zimmermann, Andrea
Schneider, Karl-Theo M.
Bader, Bernhard L.
Amann-Gassner, Ulrike
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

CONTEXT: There is debate over the independent and combined effects of dieting and increased physical activity on improving metabolic risk factors (body composition and fat distribution). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to conduct a randomized, controlled trial (CALERIE) to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit by diet alone or diet plus exercise for 6 months on body composition and fat distribution. DESIGN: This was a randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: The study was conducted at an institutional research center.

Redman, Leanne M.
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Martin, Corby K.
Alfonso, Anthony
Smith, Steven R.
Ravussin, Eric
Pennington CALERIE Team
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

White adipose tissue is the principal site for lipid accumulation. Males and females maintain distinctive white adipose tissue distribution patterns. Specifically, males tend to accumulate relatively more visceral fat, whereas females accumulate relatively more subcutaneous fat. The phenomenon of maintaining typical sex-specific fat distributions suggests sex-specific mechanisms that regulate energy balance and adiposity.

Shi, Haifei
Strader, April D.
Woods, Stephen C.
Seeley, Randy J.


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