Body Size

Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Rather than being a passive, haphazard process of wear and tear, lifespan can be modulated actively by components of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) pathway in laboratory animals. Complete or partial loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding components of the insulin/IGFI pathway result in extension of life span in yeasts, worms, flies, and mice. This remarkable conservation throughout evolution suggests that altered signaling in this pathway may also influence human lifespan.

Author(s): 
Suh, Yousin
Atzmon, Gil
Cho, Mi-Ook
Hwang, David
Liu, Bingrong
Leahy, Daniel J.
Barzilai, Nir
Cohen, Pinchas
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

The complex, highly integrative endocrine system regulates all aspects of somatic maintenance and reproduction and has been widely implicated as an important determinant of longevity in short-lived traditional model organisms of aging research. Genetic or experimental manipulation of hormone profiles in mice has been proven to definitively alter longevity. These hormonally induced lifespan extension mechanisms may not necessarily be relevant to humans and other long-lived organisms that naturally show successful slow aging.

Author(s): 
Buffenstein, Rochelle
Pinto, Mario
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known.

Author(s): 
Ren, Yaguang
Yang, Su
Tan, Guoqiang
Ye, Wei
Liu, Danhui
Qian, Xu
Ding, Zhongying
Zhong, Yuhong
Zhang, Jingrui
Jiang, Dandan
Zhao, Yuhong
Lu, Jianxin
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

A recent report of virtually complete protection from diabetes and cancer in a population of people with hereditary dwarfism revived interest in elucidating the relationships between growth, adult body size, age-related disease and longevity. In many species, smaller individuals outlive those that are larger and a similar relationship was shown in studies of various human populations. Adult body size is strongly dependent on the actions of growth hormone (GH) and the absence of GH or GH receptor in mice leads to a remarkable extension of longevity.

Author(s): 
Bartke, Andrzej
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Comparative biogerontology evaluates cellular, molecular, physiological, and genomic properties that distinguish short-lived from long-lived species. These studies typically use maximum reported lifespan (MRLS) as the index with which to compare traits, but there is a general awareness that MRLS is not ideal owing to statistical shortcomings that include bias resulting from small sample sizes. Nevertheless, MRLS has enough species-specific information to show strong associations with many other species-specific traits, such as body mass, stress resistance, and codon usage.

Author(s): 
Moorad, Jacob A.
Promislow, Daniel E. L.
Flesness, Nate
Miller, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Comparative studies of aging are often difficult to interpret because of the different factors that tend to correlate with longevity. We used the AnAge database to study these factors, particularly metabolism and developmental schedules, previously associated with longevity in vertebrate species. Our results show that, after correcting for body mass and phylogeny, basal metabolic rate does not correlate with longevity in eutherians or birds, although it negatively correlates with marsupial longevity and time to maturity.

Author(s): 
de Magalh„es, Jo„o Pedro
Costa, Joana
Church, George M.
Publication Title: 
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Among all organisms, the size of each body part or organ scales with overall body size, a phenomenon called allometry. The study of shape and form has attracted enormous interest from biologists, but the genetic, developmental and physiological mechanisms that control allometry and the proportional growth of parts have remained elusive. Recent progress in our understanding of body-size regulation provides a new synthetic framework for thinking about the mechanisms and the evolution of allometric scaling.

Author(s): 
Shingleton, Alexander W.
Frankino, W. Anthony
Flatt, Thomas
Nijhout, H. Frederik
Emlen, Douglas J.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in most animals, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are the subject of much debate. We investigated the association between longevity and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in Indian stick insects (Carausius morosus) by (i) determining the appropriate scaling coefficient for calculating mass-corrected RMR of insects throughout development, (ii) quantifying the response of RMR to diet history, and (iii) correlating RMR in multiple life-history stages with adult and total lifespan.

Author(s): 
Roark, Alison M.
Bjorndal, Karen A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Entomology

Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity, and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males.

Author(s): 
Helinski, Michelle E. H.
Harrington, Laura C.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

A recent report of virtually complete protection from diabetes and cancer in a population of people with hereditary dwarfism revived interest in elucidating the relationships between growth, adult body size, age-related disease and longevity. In many species, smaller individuals outlive those that are larger and a similar relationship was shown in studies of various human populations. Adult body size is strongly dependent on the actions of growth hormone (GH) and the absence of GH or GH receptor in mice leads to a remarkable extension of longevity.

Author(s): 
Bartke, Andrzej

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