Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to review systematically the comparative effectiveness of yoga, compared with other exercise interventions, for older adults as shown on measures of health and physical functioning. DESIGN: This was a systematic review with both narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE®/PUBMED, PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS; bibliographies of selected articles; and one systematic review on the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease.
Hip fracture incidence rates are predicted to increase dramatically in the first half of the 21st century, especially in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. These increased rates will result primarily from the effects of public health efforts to improve nutrition and infectious-disease control, both of which contribute to improved longevity of populations. An example of a rapid increase in hip fracture incidence rates has been reported in Hong Kong.
Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have experienced marked improvements in longevity over the last three decades, bone disease has emerged as a new problem. Bone disease in CF has not been previously reviewed in this journal. Therefore, this review will give a brief overview of bone disease in CF and then concentrate on treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: In some series, as many as three fourths of adults with CF have low bone density.
Bone mass declines progressively with age in both men and women from the age of approximately 30 y. Increased longevity will inevitability be associated with an increase in the incidence of osteoporosis, its associated complications, and incurred health care costs. Current pharmacologic approaches focus on inhibiting bone resorption in those with osteoporosis but do little to improve bone mass. Increased understanding of the cellular events responsible for normal bone formation has led to multiple pathways that can be targeted to positively influence bone mass.
Skeletal remodelling is a continuous process during life and is still active also in extreme senescence. In the elderly, bone resorption often prevails over bone formation, causing bone loss and fragility. Elderly subjects are exposed to the risk of fractures, and loss of self-sufficiency, if considering that the proximal femur is the most frequently involved site. Bone remodelling can maintain circulating calcium within physiological ranges, at the expense of a substantial loss of this ion from the skeleton, particularly during senescence.
BACKGROUND: Calorie restriction (CR) is promoted to increase longevity, yet this regimen could lead to bone loss and fracture and therefore affect quality of life. METHODS: Forty-six individuals were randomized to 4 groups for 6 months: (1) healthy diet (control group); (2) 25% CR from baseline energy requirements (CR group); (3) 25% energy deficit by a combination of CR and increased aerobic exercise (CR + EX group); and (4) low-calorie diet (890 kcal/d; goal, 15% weight loss) followed by weight maintenance (LCD group).
Calorie restriction results in leanness, which is linked to metabolic conditions that favor longevity. We show here that deficiency of the triglyceride synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which promotes leanness, also extends longevity without limiting food intake. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation in white adipose tissue. This protection was accompanied by increased mean and maximal life spans of ~25% and ~10%, respectively.
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Praval bhasma (PB; Coral calx) is a natural source of rich calcium widely used in traditional system of Indian medicine as a supplement in the treatment of variety of bone metabolic disorders associated with calcium deficiency. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Praval bhasma on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy and concurrent calcium deficiency (CD-OVX).
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4 months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise, followed by another evaluation (Time 3).