Bone Density

Publication Title: 
Food Chemistry

Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model.

Author(s): 
Park, Yooheon
Kim, Jonggun
Scrimgeour, Angus G.
Condlin, Michelle L.
Kim, Daeyoung
Park, Yeonhwa
Publication Title: 
Nutrients

BACKGROUND: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. METHODS: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan.

Author(s): 
Vatanparast, Hassanali
Nisbet, Christine
Gushulak, Brian
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Calcium supplementation of pregnant Gambian women with a low calcium intake results in lower maternal bone mineral content in the subsequent lactation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether the lower bone mineral content persists long term. DESIGN: All women in the calcium supplementation trial (International Trial Registry ISRCTN96502494) who had been scanned with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 52 wk of lactation (L52; n = 79) were invited for follow-up when neither pregnant nor lactating for ≥3 mo (NPNL) or at 52 wk postpartum in a future lactation (F52).

Author(s): 
Jarjou, Landing M. A.
Sawo, Yankuba
Goldberg, Gail R.
Laskey, M. Ann
Cole, Tim J.
Prentice, Ann
Publication Title: 
Thorax

BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates have been shown to be effective agents in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Because corticosteroid associated osteoporosis is often associated with increased bone turnover, the effect of intermittent intravenous infusions of pamidronate on this condition has been investigated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (five male) with chronic corticosteroid dependent lung disease (15 asthma, two sarcoidosis) were treated with infusions of 30 mg pamidronate once every three months for one year.

Author(s): 
Gallacher, S. J.
Fenner, J. A.
Anderson, K.
Bryden, F. M.
Banham, S. W.
Logue, F. C.
Cowan, R. A.
Boyle, I. T.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Translational Medicine

BACKGROUND: Immunological arguments and historical examples have shown that treatment with cord blood for non-hematopoietic activities, such as growth factor production and stimulation of angiogenesis, may not require matching or immune suppression. METHODS: To study the benefit of blood mononuclear cell therapy, 8 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis were given intermittent treatments with non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells for 3 months.

Author(s): 
Li, Jun
Zhang, Li
Zhou, Liang
Yu, Zheng-Ping
Qi, Feng
Liu, Bei
Zi, Su-Xia
Li, Li
Li, Yi
Wang, San-Bin
Cui, Zheng-Jiang
Pan, Xing-Hua
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

This study examines the effects of weight loss by caloric restriction (WL) and aerobic exercise plus weight loss (AEx+WL) on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in older women. Healthy, postmenopausal women [age 63 +/- 1 (SE) yr] not on hormone-replacement therapy underwent 6 mo of WL (n = 15) consisting of dietary counseling one time per week with a caloric deficit (250-350 kcal/day) or AEx+WL (n = 15) consisting of treadmill exercise three times per week in addition to the weight loss. Maximal aerobic capacity increased only in the AEx+WL group (P < 0. 001).

Author(s): 
Ryan, A. S.
Nicklas, B. J.
Dennis, K. E.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Endocrinology

Women have become increasingly physically active in recent decades. While exercise provides substantial health benefits, intensive exercise is also associated with a unique set of risks for the female athlete. Hypothalamic dysfunction associated with strenuous exercise, and the resulting disturbance of GnRH pulsatility, can result in delayed menarche and disruption of menstrual cyclicity. Specific mechanisms triggering reproductive dysfunction may vary across athletic disciplines.

Author(s): 
Warren, M. P.
Perlroth, N. E.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic childhood psychiatric illness that involves a reduction in caloric intake, loss of weight and amenorrhea, either primary or secondary. The diagnostic criteria for AN have been established by the American Psychiatric Association.

Author(s): 
Muñoz, M. T.
Argente, J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Weight loss is associated with bone loss, but this has not been examined in overweight premenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether overweight premenopausal women lose bone with moderate weight loss at recommended or higher than recommended calcium intakes.

Author(s): 
Riedt, Claudia S.
Schlussel, Yvette
von Thun, Nancy
Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina
Stahl, Theodore
Field, M. Paul
Sherrell, Robert M.
Shapses, Sue A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

Leptin is responsible for linking energy metabolism to bone mass. Because astronauts are commonly in negative energy balance during spaceflight, this study was designed to assess individual and combined effects of food restriction and simulated microgravity on bone mass and serum leptin. Six-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12 each): two hindlimb-unloading (HU) groups fed 100% (HU100) and 70% (HU70) and two cage-activity control (CC) groups fed 100% (CC100) and 70% (CC70) of their baseline food requirement.

Author(s): 
Baek, Kyunghwa
Barlow, Alicia A.
Allen, Matt R.
Bloomfield, Susan A.

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