Bone Remodeling

Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an incidence of 1% among women under the age of 40, primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is still poorly understood. As the variable cause and presentation of POI complicate its management, a standard regimen for treatment remains to be established. However, emerging research has provided new insight on current mainstays of treatment as well as novel management approaches and therapeutic interventions.

Author(s): 
Hewlett, Meghan
Mahalingaiah, Shruthi
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter, which is phylogenetically conserved in a wide range of species from nematodes to humans. In mammals, age-related changes in serotonin systems are known risk factors of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, faecal incontinence and cardiovascular diseases. A decline in serotonin function with aging would be consistent with observations of age-related changes in behaviours, such as sleep, sexual behaviour and mood all of which are linked to serotonergic function. Despite this little is known about serotonin in relation to aging.

Author(s): 
Fidalgo, Sara
Ivanov, Dobril K.
Wood, Shona H.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Bone mass declines progressively with age in both men and women from the age of approximately 30 y. Increased longevity will inevitability be associated with an increase in the incidence of osteoporosis, its associated complications, and incurred health care costs. Current pharmacologic approaches focus on inhibiting bone resorption in those with osteoporosis but do little to improve bone mass. Increased understanding of the cellular events responsible for normal bone formation has led to multiple pathways that can be targeted to positively influence bone mass.

Author(s): 
Mundy, Gregory R.
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.)

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Author(s): 
Shen, Chwan-Li
Yeh, James K.
Cao, Jay J.
Wang, Jia-Sheng
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Equol, a product of intestinal metabolism of daidzein, is chemically similar to estrogen (without the lipophilic moiety) and has higher estrogen receptor-beta binding affinity than its parent precursor. In 2004, a long-term, randomized controlled trial that characterized postmenopausal women by their equol-producing status showed stronger advantages to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in equol- compared with nonequol-producers. Subsequent studies have related equol status of participants to change in bone turnover markers or BMD in response to soy isoflavone interventions.

Author(s): 
Weaver, Connie M.
Legette, LeeCole L.
Publication Title: 
Osteoporosis international: a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA

Postmenopausal women with osteopenia received green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplement and/or Tai Chi exercise for 6 months. Bone turnover biomarkers, calcium metabolism, and muscle strength were measured. This study showed that GTP supplementation and Tai Chi exercise increased bone formation biomarkers and improved bone turnover rate. Tai Chi exercise increased serum parathyroid hormone. GTP supplementation, Tai Chi exercise, and the combination of the two all improved muscle strength in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

Author(s): 
Shen, C.-L.
Chyu, M.-C.
Yeh, J. K.
Zhang, Y.
Pence, B. C.
Felton, C. K.
Brismée, J.-M.
Arjmandi, B. H.
Doctolero, S.
Wang, J.-S.
Publication Title: 
Antiviral Therapy

BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density decreases with antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, although the pathogenesis, including the role of tenofovir (TDF), is unclear. This study assessed changes in bone-turnover markers, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator for nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and inflammation in subjects initiating TDF- versus non-TDF-containing regimens, and determined the relationship between bone turnover, OPG/sRANKL and inflammation.

Author(s): 
Brown, Todd T.
Ross, Allison C.
Storer, Norma
Labbato, Danielle
McComsey, Grace A.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)

Extensive evidence has suggested that at least some of the effects of estrogens on bone are mediated via extranuclear estrogen receptor α signaling. However, definitive proof for this contention and the extent to which such effects may contribute to the overall protective effects of estrogens on bone maintenance have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the ability of a 17β-estradiol (E2) dendrimer conjugate (EDC), incapable of stimulating nuclear-initiated actions of estrogen receptor α, to prevent the effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on the murine skeleton.

Author(s): 
Bartell, Shoshana M.
Han, Li
Kim, Ha-neui
Kim, Sung Hoon
Katzenellenbogen, John A.
Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.
Chambliss, Ken L.
Shaul, Philip W.
Roberson, Paula K.
Weinstein, Robert S.
Jilka, Robert L.
Almeida, Maria
Manolagas, Stavros C.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction in the joints. It is increasingly being realized that inflammation might play an important role in inducing bone damage in arthritis. However, there is limited validation of this concept in vivo in well-controlled experimental conditions. We addressed this issue using the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model of RA.

Author(s): 
Nanjundaiah, S. M.
Stains, J. P.
Moudgil, K. D.
Publication Title: 
Brazilian Oral Research

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss, has been the target of several studies in the past few years. It results in a much higher risk for fractures and might cause slower bone lesion healing. The aim of this work was to study the effects of Risedronate (allopathic medicine) and Calcarea phosphorica 6CH (homeopathic medicine) on the repair of bone lesions in male rats with osteoporosis induced by castration. Eighty-four three-month-old rats were used divided into four groups of twenty-one animals each.

Author(s): 
Werkman, Cristina
Senra, Giselle Segnini
da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes
Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

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