In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages.
Borderline personality is a well known concept in psychiatric literature, however, not fully understood as to its very nature. This article presents a short review of hypothesized etiologies of the borderline personality, starting with so called traditional theories, namely, borderline personality as a consolidated personality organization, in which the patient pathologically deals with his or her inner aggression, or with an enduring developmental failure.
Accumulating evidence points to severe relationship dysfunction as the core epigenetic expression of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In adulthood, BPD is typified by disorganization within and across interpersonal domains of functioning. When interacting with their infants, mothers with BPD show marked withdrawal and frightening or frightened behavior, leading to disorganized infant-mother attachments. Linked to both infant disorganization and BPD is a maternal state of mind typified by unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma.
With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disease of increasing importance. Epigenetic alterations are hallmarks for altered gene expression and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. In our study we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of 14 neuropsychiatric genes (COMT, DAT1, GABRA1, GNB3, GRIN2B, HTR1B, HTR2A, 5-HTT, MAOA, MAOB, NOS1, NR3C1, TPH1 and TH). DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite restriction analysis and pyrosequencing in whole blood samples of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in controls.
We assess the number of patients who we have on the Database of a Community Mental Health Team in the UK who have Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. We report how many of these have been seen as having both disorders. Hence we discuss the issue as to whether Borderline Personality disorder is to be placed within the bipolar spectrum.
Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression with corresponding increased methylation at specific promoters has been associated with stressful experiences in early life and may explain later adulthood psychopathology. We measured the percentage of methylation at BDNF CpG exons I and IV as well as plasma BDNF protein levels in 115 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 52 controls. BPD subjects then underwent a 4-week course of intensive dialectical behavior therapy (I-DBT).
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings indicate that women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), when compared to women with no eating disorder (NED), tend to display elevated methylation in the promoter region of the DRD2 gene. The preceding would be compatible with evidence of generally reduced dopamine activity in people with BN. However, altered DNA methylation has also been associated with adverse environmental exposures (such as to childhood abuse) and with psychiatric disturbances (such as Borderline Personality Disorder: BPD).
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disease with an increased impact in the last years. While the diagnosis and therapy are well established, little is known on the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder. Previously, a significant increase in DNA methylation of relevant neuropsychiatric genes in BPD patients has been reported. In our study we performed genome wide methylation analysis and revealed specific CpG sites that exhibited increased methylation in 24 female BPD patients compared to 11 female healthy controls.
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are currently being investigated in animal models and clinical studies. However, very little is currently known about the mechanisms that deregulate BDNF gene expression in these disorders. The BDNF gene structure and tissue expression pattern is complex, controlled in humans by 9 different gene promoters.