INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is usually a lifelong condition with persistent pain and disability. Focal dystonia affects a single part of the body; generalised dystonia can affect most or all of the body. It is more common in women, and some types of dystonia are more common in people of European Ashkenazi Jewish descent. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal, and for generalised dystonia?
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause flaccid paralysis by interfering with vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release in the neuronal cells. BoNTs are the most widely used therapeutic proteins. BoNT/A was approved by the U.S. FDA to treat strabismus, blepharospam, and hemificial spasm as early as 1989 and then for treatment of cervical dystonia, glabellar facial lines, axillary hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine and for cosmetic use.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are proteins of great interest not only because of their extreme toxicity but also paradoxically for their therapeutic applications. All the known serotypes (A-G) have varying degrees of longevity and potency inside the neuronal cell. Differential chemical modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have been suggested as possible mechanisms for their longevity, but the molecular basis of the longevity remains unclear.
The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice
BACKGROUND: Spasmodic torticollis is a movement disorder of the nuchal muscles, characterized by tremor or by tonic posturing of the head in a rotated, twisted, or abnormally flexed or extended position or some combination of these positions. The abnormal posturing of the head allows this disorder to be clinically diagnosed. Psychiatric symptoms frequently accompany or precede the diagnosis of the movement disorder.
Tourette's disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised clinically by motor and vocal tics, which may be associated to conductual disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurochemistry of Tourette's disorder is not well known, there are some effective therapies for tics, OCD and ADHD. However, these are not devoid of adverse effects. Tics only require treatment when they interfere with the functioning of the patient.
BACKGROUND: The Facial Grading Scale (FGS) is a quantitative instrument used to evaluate facial function after facial nerve injury. However, quantitative improvements in function after facial rehabilitation in people with chronic facial paralysis have not been shown. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to use the FGS in a large series of consecutive subjects with facial paralysis to quantitatively evaluate improvements in facial function after facial nerve rehabilitation and to describe the management of chronic facial paralysis. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective review.
BACKGROUND: Spasmodic torticollis patients were investigated with respect to the number of adjunct treatments used before and after the introduction of botulinum toxin therapy (Btx). The study was designed in a similar way to an earlier investigation by Birner et al. (Nervenarzt 70:903-908, 1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 247 patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis were assessed at three time points for the diagnosis: before 1988 (n = 63), between 1989 and 1998 (n = 107) and after 1999 (n = 77).
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), a group of bacterial proteins that comprise a light chain disulfide linked a heavy chain, are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind. By inhibiting neurotransmitter release, BoNTs cause severe neuroparalytic disease, botulism. A series of important findings in the past 10 years which displayed the molecular targets of BoNTs and hence proposed a four-step action mechanism to explain BoNT intoxication greatly advanced the study of antibotulismic drug. In this article, we reviewed these progresses and anti-botulismic compounds found in recent years.
The fact that the fruit and bark of plant belonging to family Melia could be used as digestive tract-parasiticide and agricultural insecticide was recorded about two thousand years ago in ancient China. Toosendanin (TSN, C30H38O11, FW=574), a triterpenoid derivative, was extracted from the bark of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. by Chinese scientists in 1950os and used as an ascarifuge in China instead of imported sendanin. Studies have demonstrated that TSN possesses special biological actions as well as considerable various values in scientific research, clinic medicine and agriculture.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the etiological agents responsible for botulism, a disease characterized by peripheral neuromuscular blockade and a characteristic flaccid paralysis of humans. The natural product toosendanin is a traditional Chinese medicine which has been reported to have anti-botulinum properties in animal models.