Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition

The size and frequency of meals are fundamental aspects of nutrition that can have profound effects on the health and longevity of laboratory animals. In humans, excessive energy intake is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers and is a major cause of disability and death in industrialized countries. On the other hand, the influence of meal frequency on human health and longevity is unclear.

Author(s): 
Mattson, Mark P.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

OBJECTIVES: The "neurotrophin hypothesis" of depression posits a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression, although it is unknown whether BDNF is more involved in the etiology of depression or in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. It is also unknown whether pre-treatment serum BDNF levels predict antidepressant response. METHODS: Thirty un-medicated depressed subjects were treated with escitalopram (N=16) or sertraline (N=14) for 8 weeks. Twenty-five of the depressed subjects completed 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment and had analyzable data.

Author(s): 
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Wolf, Jessica
Shelly, Wendy
Rosser, Rebecca
Burke, Heather M.
Lerner, George K.
Reus, Victor I.
Nelson, J. Craig
Epel, Elissa S.
Mellon, Synthia H.
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
Author(s): 
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Epel, Elissa S.
Mellon, Synthia
Publication Title: 
Pharmacopsychiatry

The molecular-genetic basis of non-mendelian, genetically influenced disorders (complex disorders) is beginning to be uncovered. Recently, major progress in localization and detection of disposition genes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was achieved. We provide a comprehensive overview of recent results of linkage and association studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Several disposition genes for schizophrenia (DTNBP1, NRG1, G72) were identified, whereas evidence for specific disposition genes in bipolar disorder is more limited.

Author(s): 
Maier, W.
Zobel, A.
Rietschel, M.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood. Genes involved in neuronal development and growth are, thus, important etiological candidates and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family and is involved in the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in the developing brain (of relevance because drugs that block the dopamine transporter can be effective therapeutically).

Author(s): 
Kent, L.
Green, E.
Hawi, Z.
Kirley, A.
Dudbridge, F.
Lowe, N.
Raybould, R.
Langley, K.
Bray, N.
Fitzgerald, M.
Owen, M. J.
O'Donovan, M. C.
Gill, M.
Thapar, A.
Craddock, N.
Publication Title: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS

Alcohol use and abuse appear to be related to neuroadaptive changes at functional, neurochemical, and structural levels. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to modulate function of the activity-dependent gene transcription factor, cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein in the brain, which may be associated with the development of alcoholism.

Author(s): 
Moonat, Sachin
Starkman, Bela G.
Sakharkar, Amul
Pandey, Subhash C.
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could be involved in the dysregulation of BDNF gene expression in the brain of suicide subjects. DESIGN: Three independent quantitative methylation techniques were performed on postmortem samples of brain tissue.

Author(s): 
Keller, Simona
Sarchiapone, Marco
Zarrilli, Federica
Videtic, Alja
Ferraro, Angelo
Carli, Vladimir
Sacchetti, Silvana
Lembo, Francesca
Angiolillo, Antonella
Jovanovic, Nikolina
Pisanti, Francesco
Tomaiuolo, Rossella
Monticelli, Antonella
Balazic, Joze
Roy, Alec
Marusic, Andrej
Cocozza, Sergio
Fusco, Alfredo
Bruni, Carmelo B.
Castaldo, Giuseppe
Chiariotti, Lorenzo
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetics comprises heritable but concurrent variable modifications of genomic DNA defining gene expression. The aim of this publication is to review the field of epigenetics in depression. Within this scope, we outline potential therapeutic options evolving in this young field of psychiatric research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published papers show that epigenetic mechanisms like histone modifications and DNA methylation affect diverse pathways leading to depression-like behaviors in animal models.

Author(s): 
Schroeder, Marc
Krebs, Marie O.
Bleich, Stefan
Frieling, Helge
Publication Title: 
Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi = Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology

Recent research has demonstrated that complex 'epigenetic' mechanisms, which regulate gene transcription without altering the DNA code, could play a critical role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The present review summarizes recent evidence for the existence of sustained epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in several psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and Rett syndrome.

Author(s): 
Miyagawa, Kazuya
Tsuji, Minoru
Fujimori, Kanji
Takeda, Hiroshi
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

Suicide behavior (SB) spans a spectrum ranging from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide. Strong evidence suggests a genetic susceptibility to SB, including familial heritability and common occurrence in twins. This review addresses recent molecular genetic studies in SB that include case-control association, genome gene-expression microarray, and genome-wide association (GWA). This work also reviews epigenetics in SB and pharmacogenetic studies of antidepressant-induced suicide.

Author(s): 
Tsai, Shih-Jen
Hong, Chen-Jee
Liou, Ying-Jay

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