Brain Injuries

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) there is an increased prevalence of depression compared to the general population. It is unknown whether non-pharmacological interventions for depression are effective for people with TBI. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for depression in adults and children with TBI at reducing the diagnosis and severity of symptoms of depression. SEARCH METHODS: We ran the most recent search on 11 February 2015.

Author(s): 
Gertler, Paul
Tate, Robyn L.
Cameron, Ian D.
Publication Title: 
Disability and Rehabilitation

PURPOSE: To critically appraise the research literature on the nature of falls and fallers in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation settings. METHOD: An integrative review of the literature using thematic analysis was undertaken. Papers identified via a systematic search strategy were independently appraised by two reviewers. A data extraction instrument was developed to record results and to aid identification of themes in the literature. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme instruments were utilised to conduct a methodological critique of the papers included.

Author(s): 
McKechnie, Duncan
Pryor, Julie
Fisher, Murray J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems.

Author(s): 
Ponsford, Jennie
Bayley, Mark
Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine
Togher, Leanne
Velikonja, Diana
McIntyre, Amanda
Janzen, Shannon
Tate, Robyn
INCOG Expert Panel
Publication Title: 
AACN clinical issues

Patients with severe traumatic brain injury resulting in increased intracranial pressure refractory to first-tier interventions challenge the critical care team. After exhausting these initial interventions, critical care practitioners may utilize barbiturate-induced coma in an attempt to reduce the intracranial pressure. Titrating appropriate levels of barbiturate is imperative. Underdosing the drug may fail to control the intracranial pressure, whereas overdosing may lead to untoward effects such as hypotension and cardiac compromise.

Author(s): 
Bader, Mary Kay
Arbour, Richard
Palmer, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be life threatening depending on the severity of the insult to the brain. It can also cause a range of debilitating sequelae which require cognitive, motor, communication, emotional, or behavioral rehabilitation of varying intensity and duration. A number of studies conducted and published in China have suggested that acupuncture may be beneficial in the acute treatment and rehabilitation of TBI.

Author(s): 
Wong, Virginia
Cheuk, Daniel Kl
Lee, Simon
Chu, Vanessa
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be life threatening depending on the severity of the insult to the brain. It can also cause a range of debilitating sequelae which require cognitive, motor, communication, emotional, or behavioral rehabilitation of varying intensity and duration. A number of studies conducted and published in China have suggested that acupuncture may be beneficial in the acute treatment and rehabilitation of TBI.

Author(s): 
Wong, Virginia
Cheuk, Daniel K. L.
Lee, Simon
Chu, Vanessa
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be life threatening depending on the severity of the insult to the brain. It can also cause a range of debilitating sequelae which require cognitive, motor, communication, emotional, or behavioral rehabilitation of varying intensity and duration. A number of studies conducted and published in China have suggested that acupuncture may be beneficial in the acute treatment and rehabilitation of TBI.

Author(s): 
Wong, Virginia
Cheuk, Daniel K. L.
Lee, Simon
Chu, Vanessa
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry

Three cases with intracranial lesions developed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation which was confirmed at necropsy. The factors engendering this state, including release of potent thromboplastin from neural tissue are discussed and the danger of this intermediary mechanism of disease increasing the mortality of intracranial disease is demonstrated. Careful haematological investigation of all patients with intracranial disease is therefore advised, especially if they manifest evidence of a bleeding tendency.

Author(s): 
Preston, F. E.
Malia, R. G.
Sworn, M. J.
Timperley, W. R.
Blackburn, E. K.
Publication Title: 
Brain Injury

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course and impact of family optimism in the post-acute stage of acquired brain injury. METHODS: At Time 1, 30 family relatives of in-patients in rehabilitation units and 30 relatives of patients recently discharged from such units completed questionnaires relating to their emotional health, engagement in the rehabilitation process and expectations about the future consequences and controllability of the injury.

Author(s): 
Riley, Gerard A.
Hough, Andrea
Meader, Laura M.
Brennan, Andrew J.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic

Human self-awareness is not easily reducible to known principles of neurochemistry, neurophysiology, or neuropsychology. The author encourages a broader, less restrictive exploration of the nature of self-awareness as it relates to brain-injured patients. He elucidates the role of symbols in neuropsychological rehabilitation and suggests that work, love, and play are the primary symbols of normality that can reconcile brain-injured patients to their neurological condition.

Author(s): 
Prigatano, G. P.

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