Brain Ischemia

Publication Title: 
Trials

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the world, and the prevalence of stroke tends to increase with age. Despite advances in acute care and secondary preventive strategies, primary prevention should play the most significant role in the reduction of the burden of stroke. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong, Baduanjin exercise is a simple, safe exercise, especially suitable for older adults.

Author(s): 
Zheng, Guohua
Chen, Bai
Fang, Qianying
Yi, Hongmei
Lin, Qiu
Chen, Lidian
Tao, Jing
Li, Junzhe
Zheng, Xin
Li, Moyi
Lan, Xiulu
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a type of histone deacetylase whose activity is dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. SIRT1 plays a key role in the longevity effects elicited by calorie restriction. Recently, a neuroprotective effect of SIRT1 was reported for neurological diseases. The focus of this review is to summarize the protective effects of SIRT1 in cerebral ischemia. First, the posttranslational modifications of SIRT1 are illustrated; then, we discuss the roles of SIRT1 in cerebral immune homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Yang, Yang
Duan, Weixun
Li, Yue
Yan, Juanjuan
Yi, Wei
Liang, Zhenxing
Wang, Ning
Yi, Dinghua
Jin, Zhenxiao
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

An estimated 65% of individuals demonstrate multidomain cognitive impairment poststroke, although little is known about the varying role of cognitive risk and protective factors in preischemic, peri-ischemic, and postischemic stroke phases. Longitudinal changes in global cognitive function after ischemic stroke are not well characterized, especially in older adults over age 80.

Author(s): 
Vaughan, Leslie
Bushnell, Cheryl
Bell, Christina L.
Espeland, Mark A.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Cardiology

With the introduction of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), the factors driving anticoagulant selection in atrial fibrillation (AF) in real-world practice are unclear. The goal was to examine whether and to what extent utilization has been driven by predictions of stroke risk (treatment benefit), bleeding risk (treatment harm), or prescription benefits' coverage. We extracted a cohort of patients with nonvalvular AF initiating anticoagulation from October 2010 to December 2012 from a large US database of commercial and Medicare supplement claims.

Author(s): 
Lauffenburger, Julie C.
Farley, Joel F.
Gehi, Anil K.
Rhoney, Denise H.
Brookhart, M. Alan
Fang, Gang
Publication Title: 
Trials

BACKGROUND: We assessed the prevalence, and potential impact of, trials of pharmacological agents for acute stroke that were completed but not published in full. Failure to publish trial data is to be deprecated as it sets aside the altruism of participants' consent to be exposed to the risks of experimental interventions, potentially biases the assessment of the effects of therapies, and may lead to premature discontinuation of research into promising treatments.

Author(s): 
Gibson, Lorna M.
Brazzelli, Miriam
Thomas, Brenda M.
Sandercock, Peter A. G.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Toxicology

Stroke, or ischaemic brain damage, is of great geriatric importance being the third most common cause of death after cancer and heart diseases in developed countries. Despite such high frequency, its management has received inadequate attention. Many studies have shown the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of ischaemic brain damage. Search for safe and effective antioxidant and free radial scavenger agents, therefore, appear to be a promising approach for stroke therapy.

Author(s): 
Shah, Zahoor Ahmad
Vohora, Shashi Bharat
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Free radicals are implicated in causation of cerebral reperfusion injury and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats is associated with functional and histopathological disturbances. Ocimum sanctum (OS), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cognition-enhancing properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of methanolic extract of OS leaves in cerebral reperfusion injury as well as long-term hypoperfusion.

Author(s): 
Yanpallewar, S. U.
Rai, Sunita
Kumar, Mohan
Acharya, S. B.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research Bulletin

Interactions between neurons and astrocytes play a critical role in the central nervous system homeostasis. Cyperus rotundus (family: Cyperaceae), a traditional Indian medicinal herb, used as nervine tonic and nootropic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effect of total oligomeric flavonoids (TOFs), prepared from C. rotundus, in rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Male Sprague Dawley rats (290-340g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and reperfusion for 70h.

Author(s): 
Sunil, A. G.
Kesavanarayanan, K. S.
Kalaivani, P.
Sathiya, S.
Ranju, V.
Priya, R. Jyothi
Pramila, B.
Paul, F. D. Solomon
Venkhatesh, J.
Babu, C. Saravana
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

The aim of this research was to validate transcription magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) for gene transcript targeting in acute neurological disorders in live subjects. We delivered three MR probe variants with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION, a T2 susceptibility agent) linked to a phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotide (sODN) complementary to c-fos mRNA (SPION-cfos) or beta-actin mRNA (SPION-beta-actin) and to sODN with random sequence (SPION-Ran).

Author(s): 
Liu, Christina H.
Huang, Shuning
Cui, Jiankun
Kim, Young R.
Farrar, Christian T.
Moskowitz, Michael A.
Rosen, Bruce R.
Liu, Philip K.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

The transcriptional factor Nrf2 has a unique role in various physiological stress conditions, but its contribution to ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been fully explored. Therefore, wildtype (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice were subjected to 90-min occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) followed by 24-h reperfusion to elucidate Nrf2 contribution in protecting against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Infarct volume, represented as percent of hemispheric volume, was significantly (P<0.05) larger in Nrf2(-/-) mice than in WT mice (30.8+/-6.1 vs. 17.0+/-5.1%).

Author(s): 
Shah, Z. A.
Li, R.-C.
Thimmulappa, R. K.
Kensler, T. W.
Yamamoto, M.
Biswal, S.
Doré, S.

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