In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley.
While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group.
The aim of the current article was to examine the meaning of suffering in drug addiction and in the recovery process. Negative emotions may cause primary suffering that can drive an individual toward substance abuse. At the same time, drugs only provide temporary relief, and over time, the pathological effects of the addiction worsen causing secondary suffering, which is a motivation for treatment. The 12-Step program offers a practical way to cope with suffering through a process of surrender.
This article is a brief introduction to several different Eastern systems of philosophy and therapy. It surveys the Buddhist contributions and several contemporary applications of traditional meditation techniques within the framework of modern psychologic science. It is suggested that meditative exercises produce three therapeutic gains: insight into repetitive, self-defeating patterns of behavior, desensitization of painful thoughts, and the conditioning of the central nervous system.
Many patients can obtain rapid, short-term relief of anxiety through the use of simple, meditative techniques. Anxiety, tension, mild depressive feelings, and psychophysiologic symptoms frequently respond to such techniques. Five techniques are described, including physical self-support, attending to unpleasant feelings, listening to thoughts, listening to sounds, and paying attention to one's breathing. The techniques are easy to learn, innocuous, and well accepted by most patients.
Meditation experiences are viewed from a constructivist perspective. Concentrative and mindfulness approaches are compared. It is concluded that, although these meditative techniques differ (and often are used in conjunction), they both yield insight into how the mind processes experience at both the preverbal and verbal levels.
To examine the extent to which advanced meditative practices might alter body metabolism and the electroencephalogram (EEG), we investigated three Tibetan Buddhist monks living in the Rumtek monastery in Sikkim, India. In a study carried out in February 1988, we found that during the practice of several different meditative practices, resting metabolism (VO2) could be both raised (up to 61%) and lowered (down to 64%). The reduction from rest is the largest ever reported.
Zen meditation, or zazen, has attracted the interest of many psychotherapists. The teachings and practices of the Soto Zen tradition are understood as encouraging important areas of both psychological and spiritual development. Zen, like the relational psychoanalytic theories, encourages its practitioners to become aware of the fundamentally distorted aspects of an overly individualistic view of human experience. As a spiritual practice, zazen increases the practitioner's tolerance and appreciation of the Wholeness that Buddhists refer to as Emptiness.
The Tibetan Buddhist classification of mind, its divisions and the system of meditation practices aimed at achieving ideal states of being are a complex presentation of psychological, behavioral and spiritual concepts and processes that demand thorough understanding before assessing their value and outcome (Yeshe, 1995).