Bupivacaine

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Postoperative pain is an important factor in the management of children undergoing thoracotomy. Intercostal nerve block has been used in adult patients, but its applicability in the pediatric age group has not been previously evaluated. Eighty-nine children (85 girls and 31 boys) aged 6 months to 16 years (mean age 4.7 years) underwent ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) through a left thoracotomy. Twenty-nine children received intercostal blocks with bupivacaine from the level of the second to sixth thoracic vertebrae. Sixty cases constituted the control group.

Author(s): 
Fleming, W. H.
Sarafian, L. B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Postoperative pain is an important factor in the management of children undergoing thoracotomy. Intercostal nerve block has been used in adult patients, but its applicability in the pediatric age group has not been previously evaluated. Eighty-nine children (85 girls and 31 boys) aged 6 months to 16 years (mean age 4.7 years) underwent ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) through a left thoracotomy. Twenty-nine children received intercostal blocks with bupivacaine from the level of the second to sixth thoracic vertebrae. Sixty cases constituted the control group.

Author(s): 
Fleming, W. H.
Sarafian, L. B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

Midazolam concentration curves versus time were analysed in 10 otherwise healthy patients (ASA I-II) with inferior limb pathologies. The benzodiazepine was used as an adjuvant agent to epidural anaesthesia in view of its lower residual effect compared with other intravenous benzodiazepines. Midazolam pharmacokinetics in these patients fitted an open two-compartment model. The plasma levels versus time corresponded to a biexponential process with a very rapid distribution phase (t1/2a = 5.7 +/- 2.4 min) and an elimination phase (t1/2 beta = 66 +/- 37 min).

Author(s): 
Sánchez-Alcaraz, A.
Sangrador, G.
Laguarda, M.
Quintana, B.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie

Spinal and epidural anaesthesia were compared in 65 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, with regard to the degree of sensory and motor blockade, cardiovascular effects, operating conditions, the dose of propofol required to produce satisfactory hypnosis, and complications. Epidural anaesthesia was successful in 30 patients using an initial dose of 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, and spinal anaesthesia in 32 patients, using 4 ml 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. The two techniques were similar with regard to the level of sensory blockade (T8), degree of hypotension and perioperative haemorrhage.

Author(s): 
Davis, S.
Erskine, R.
James, M. F.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

To evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of propofol during recovery after total intravenous anesthesia, 20 female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied. In 10 patients (Group B) the propofol infusion was supplemented with an epidural block with bupivacaine to evaluate the relation between the blood concentration of propofol and various pharmacodynamic end-points. The remaining 10 patients (Group A) received an alfentanil infusion intravenously instead of the epidural block to assess the dynamic interactions of alfentanil and propofol.

Author(s): 
Wessén, A.
Persson, P. M.
Nilsson, A.
Hartvig, P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of propofol in combination with epidural anesthesia or with intravenous (i.v.) alfentanil infusion, and to investigate the clinical feasibility of this anesthetic technique in lower abdominal surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, open clinical study. SETTING: Operating theaters and postanesthesia recovery unit at the department of gynecology of a university medical center. PATIENTS: 20 healthy, consenting ASA physical status I and II adult female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: A total i.v.

Author(s): 
Wessén, A.
Persson, P. M.
Nilsson, A.
Hartvig, P.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Author(s): 
Wessels, I. F.
Najjar, M. F.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: Interest in combining local and general anaesthesia has lead to studies investigating possible interactions. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we tested whether local anaesthetics administered i.m. potentiate the hypnotic effect of propofol. METHODS: Sixty patients (three groups, n=20) undergoing lower abdominal surgery with total i.v. propofol anaesthesia were investigated. Patients in Group B received i.m. bupivacaine (5 mg ml(-1)) 1 mg kg(-1), patients in Group L received i.m. lidocaine (100 mg ml(-1)) 2 mg kg(-1) and patients in Group C received i.m.

Author(s): 
Senturk, M.
Pembeci, K.
Menda, F.
Ozkan, T.
Gucyetmez, B.
Tugrul, M.
Camci, E.
Akpir, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

We examined the sedative/hypnotic interaction between the administration of intravenous (i.v.) midazolam and intramuscular (i.m.) lidocaine or bupivacaine. Women undergoing gynecological surgery (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 15 dose groups of 10 patients each. Fifty patients received one of five predetermined doses of midazolam for the calculation of its median effective dose (ED50). The remaining patients (n = 100) received i.v. midazolam 0.1 mg/kg following an i.m. injection of either bupivacaine, lidocaine, or saline (control). Three minutes after the i.v.

Author(s): 
Ben-Shlomo, I.
Tverskoy, M.
Fleyshman, G.
Melnicko, V.
Katz, Y.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

The growing interest in combining local and general anesthesia has led to studies investigating possible interactions between general anesthesia and local anesthetics administered via spinal, epidural, IV, or IM routes. However, no study has evaluated the effect of local anesthetics on all three components of balanced anesthesia, i.e., hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation.

Author(s): 
Agarwal, Anil
Pandey, Ravindra
Dhiraaj, Sanjay
Singh, Prabhat K.
Raza, Mehdi
Pandey, Chandra K.
Gupta, Devendra
Choudhury, Arindam
Singh, Uttam

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