Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Fur Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie
PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure.
The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant.
Zeitschrift F�r Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences
The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs.
Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects influence the motility of mice in inhalation studies under standardized conditions. A significant drop in the motility of mice was registered following exposure to these fragrances. The same results were achieved when the mice were artificially induced into overagitation by intraperitoneal application of caffeine and subsequently subjected to inhalation of fragrance compounds and essential oils. These results proved the sedative effects of these fragrants via inhalative exposure in low concentrations.
Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation in rats and mice employing the tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test, respectively.
Dietary supplements that contain Ma Huang (ephedra alkaloids) and guarana (caffeine) are widely marketed and used in the U.S. for weight loss and athletic performance enhancement, despite a lack of adequate research on the pharmacology of these botanical stimulants. We developed and applied a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to quantitate the various ephedra alkaloids found in dietary supplements that contain Ephedra species.
Dietary supplements containing botanical forms of caffeine and ephedra alkaloids have been widely promoted and used in the U.S. for weight loss and athletic enhancement despite a lack of adequate research on the pharmacology of these botanical stimulants. In order to analyze dietary supplements and perform human pharmacokinetic studies, an analytical approach with good precision and accuracy was needed with sufficient sensitivity to detect very low levels of ephedra alkaloids.
AIM: The combination of ephedrine and caffeine has been used in herbal products for weight loss and athletic performance-enhancement, but the pharmacokinetic profiles of these compounds have not been well characterized. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model describing ephedrine, norephedrine, and caffeine pharmacokinetics and their interactions in healthy subjects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic model was developed based on the simultaneous modelling using plasma samples gathered from two clinical trials.
BACKGROUND: Coadministration of fluvoxamine impairs the clearance of caffeine and prolongs its elimination half-life, which is attributable to inhibition of CYP1A2 by fluvoxamine. The clinical importance of this interaction is not established. AIM: To evaluate the effects of fluvoxamine on the kinetics and dynamics of single doses of caffeine. METHODS: Seven healthy subjects received single 250 mg doses of caffeine (or matching placebo) together with fluvoxamine (four doses of 100 mg over 2 days) or with matching placebo in a double-blind, four-way crossover study.