Activating AMPK or inactivating calcineurin slows ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans and both have been implicated as therapeutic targets for age-related pathology in mammals. However, the direct targets that mediate their effects on longevity remain unclear. In mammals, CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) are a family of cofactors involved in diverse physiological processes including energy homeostasis, cancer and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Eczema in childhood is almost always atopic eczema, a common disease with huge impact on the quality of life of the child and family. Although atopic eczema constitutes part of the atopic syndrome, avoidance of allergens is never enough for disease control. Treatment of eczema in childhood has the same components as in adults. Emollients constitute the preventive background therapy in all stages of eczema, and topical corticosteroids are still the mainstay of treatment. Infectious exacerbation may require the use of a short course of topical or systemic antimicrobials.
Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended.
Caenorhabditis elegans defecation is a rhythmic behavior, composed of three sequential muscle contractions, with a 50-s periodicity. The motor program is driven by oscillatory calcium signaling in the intestine. Proton fluxes, which require sodium-proton exchangers at the apical and basolateral intestinal membranes, parallel the intestinal calcium flux. These proton shifts are critical for defecation-associated muscle contraction, nutrient uptake, and longevity. How sodium-proton exchangers are activated in time with intestinal calcium oscillation is not known.
Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα) were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction.
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by adrenergic overactivation can subsequently develop to heart failure which remains as a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Tanshinone IIA is a lipid-soluble pharmacologically active compound extracted from the rhizome of the Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. However, little is know about the effect of Tanshinone IIA on cardiac hypertrophy.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Clinically used calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporine A, can induce calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome (CIPS), which is characterized as severe pain and pain hypersensitivity. Increased synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the spinal dorsal horn plays a critical role in the development of CIPS. Casein kinase II (CK2), a serine/threonine protein kinase, can regulate synaptic NMDAR activity in the brain.