Both poikilotherms and homeotherms live longer at lower body temperatures, highlighting a general role of temperature reduction in lifespan extension. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One prominent model is that cold temperatures reduce the rate of chemical reactions, thereby slowing the rate of aging. This view suggests that cold-dependent lifespan extension is simply a passive thermodynamic process. Here, we challenge this view in C. elegans by showing that genetic programs actively promote longevity at cold temperatures.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
SUMMARY: The contractile function of the heart requires the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac muscle cells. The efficacy of Ca(2+) release depends on the amount of Ca(2+) loaded into the Ca(2+) store and the way in which this 'Ca(2+) load' influences the activity of the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR2).
It is commonly known that mental activity helps to maintain a healthy brain. Recent research has unraveled the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain why an active brain lives longer. These mechanisms involve the activation of a comprehensive transcriptional program that is triggered by enhanced synaptic activity and renders neurons resistant to harmful conditions. Functionally, this state of acquired neuroprotection may be achieved mainly via one mechanism, which is the stabilization of mitochondria.
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification (PTM) catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARPs use NAD(+) as substrate and upon cleaving off nicotinamide they transfer the ADP-ribosyl moiety covalently to suitable acceptor proteins and elongate the chain by adding further ADP-ribose units to create a branched polymer, termed poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3).
Emerging lines of evidence suggest a relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and protein sumoylation. Multiple studies have demonstrated that several of the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, including superoxide dismutase 1, fused in liposarcoma, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), are substrates for sumoylation.
Our previous studies indicated that L-type calcium channel blocker diltiazem could potentiate pentobarbital-induced hypnosis through serotonergic system. In view of the important role of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) on the sleep regulation and the pharmacological actions of calcium channel blocker, we presumed that Ca(2+) in the DRN may play an important role in sleep regulation in pentobarbital treated rats.
Intracellular calcium controls several crucial cellular events in apicomplexan parasites, including protein secretion, motility, and invasion into and egress from host cells. The plant compound thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), resulting in elevated calcium and induction of protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. Artemisinins are natural products that show potent and selective activity against parasites, making them useful for the treatment of malaria.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taxol (Paclitaxel) is an important natural product for the treatment of solid tumors. Despite a well documented tubulin-stabilizing effect, many side effects of taxol therapy cannot be explained by cytoskeletal mechanisms. In the present study submicromolar concentrations of taxol, mimicking concentrations found in patients, induced cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations in a human neuronal cell line. These oscillations were independent of extracellular and mitochondrial Ca(2+) but dependent on intact signaling via the phosphoinositide signaling pathway.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by abnormal T cell activation and death, processes which are crucially dependent on the controlled production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and of ATP in mitochondria. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) has conclusively emerged as a critical checkpoint of ATP synthesis and cell death.
Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER) in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic.