Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) is a transcription factor and tumor suppressor linked to longevity that determines cell fate through activating transcription of cell differentiation, survival, and apoptotic genes. Recruitment of the coactivator CBP/p300 is a crucial step in transcription, and we revealed that in addition to conserved region 3 (CR3) of FOXO3a, the C-terminal segment of CR2 (CR2C) binds CBP/p300 and contributes to transcriptional activity.
Alternative antischistosomal drugs are required since praziquantel is virtually the only drug available for treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis. Manual microscopic reading is the current "gold standard" to assess the in vitro antischistosomal properties of test drugs; however, it is labor-intensive, subjective, and difficult to standardize. Hence, there is a need to develop novel tools for antischistosomal drug discovery.
BACKGROUND: Active video games (exergames) increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) compared with sedentary video gaming. The physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming in adolescents, and young and older adults has not been documented, nor compared with aerobic exercise. This study compared the physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming on Wii Fit with aerobic exercise in 3 populations.
The predicted resting metabolic rate (pRMR), as is estimated by the Harris-Benedict equation (HBE), was compared with the actual resting metabolic rate (mRMR), as assessed by indirect calorimetry, in 31 moderately obese (mean above ideal body weight = 44 +/- 2.8%) male subjects (mean age = 48 +/- 4.5 years; mean weight = 107.3 +/- 17.1 kg; mean% fat = 34 +/- 3.9).
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
The effects of prolonged caloric restriction (CR) on protein kinetics in lean subjects has not been investigated previously. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that 21 days of CR in lean subjects would 1) result in significant losses of lean mass despite a suppression in leucine turnover and oxidation and 2) negatively impact exercise performance.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate eating behavior and energy balance as a cause of increased body mass index (BMI) in narcolepsy. DESIGN: Case controlled pilot study. SETTINGS: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 13 patients with narcolepsy (7 "typical" patients, with HLA DQB1*0602 and clear cut cataplexy, with suspected hypocretin deficiency; and 6 "atypical" narcoleptics, i.e., HLA negative or without cataplexy), and 9 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and ethnicity.
The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation.