Cambodia

Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Psychology

This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation.

Author(s): 
Hinton, Devon E.
Ojserkis, Rebecca A.
Jalal, Baland
Peou, Sonith
Hofmann, Stefan G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Psychology

This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation.

Author(s): 
Hinton, Devon E.
Ojserkis, Rebecca A.
Jalal, Baland
Peou, Sonith
Hofmann, Stefan G.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: The Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

SETTING: Since 2005, private pharmacies linked to the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) and the Municipal Health Department in Phnom Penh have referred tuberculosis (TB) symptomatic patients to public sector TB clinics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes and practices of pharmacy-initiated referral service providers in Phnom Penh from 2005 to 2010. METHODS: In a qualitative study, participants were purposively selected from the register of pharmacy owners providing referral services. Discussions were conducted in Khmer by trained facilitators.

Author(s): 
Bell, C. A.
Eang, M. T.
Dareth, M.
Rothmony, E.
Duncan, G. J.
Saini, B.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

The safety and efficacy of a novel combination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and piperaquine, Artekin (Holleykin Pharmaceuticals), were assessed in 106 patients (76 children and 30 adults) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 2 remote areas in Cambodia. Age-based doses were given at 0, 8, 24, and 32 h. Mean total DHA and piperaquine doses were 9.1 and 73.9 mg/kg, respectively, for children and 6.6 and 52.9 mg/kg for adults. All patients became aparasitemic within 72 h.

Author(s): 
Denis, Mey Bouth
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Hewitt, Sean
Incardona, Sandra
Nimol, Khim
Fandeur, Thierry
Poravuth, Yi
Lim, Chiv
Socheat, Doung
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

AIMS: To assess the haemodynamic, electrocardiographic and glycaemic effects of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin (Artekin) fixed combination therapy in uncomplicated malaria. METHODS: Sixty-two Cambodians (32 children and 30 adults) with falciparum or vivax malaria were given Artekin given as four age-based oral doses over 32 h. Supine and erect blood pressure, the electrocardiographic QT interval and plasma glucose were measured before treatment and then at regular intervals during a 4-day admission period as part of efficacy and safety monitoring.

Author(s): 
Karunajeewa, Harin
Lim, Chiv
Hung, Te-Yu
Ilett, Kenneth F.
Denis, Mey Bouth
Socheat, Doung
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Artesunate and mefloquine combination treatment has been used since 2000 in Cambodia as the first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In order to assess its efficacy and safety, the national malaria control programme conducted 14 therapeutic efficacy studies with the drug combination between 2001 and 2004 at nine sites. In 2001 and 2002, co-blister packs of artesunate and mefloquine were used, whereas in 2003 and 2004, drugs were given individually from a bulk pack at a total dose of 12 mg/kg of artesunate and 25 mg/kg of mefloquine over 3 days.

Author(s): 
Denis, Mey Bouth
Tsuyuoka, Reiko
Poravuth, Yi
Narann, Top Sophoan
Seila, Suon
Lim, Chim
Incardona, Sandra
Lim, Pharath
Sem, Rithy
Socheat, Duong
Christophel, Eva Maria
Ringwald, Pascal
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) with that of a 3-day regimen of mefloquine and artesunate (MAS3) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Cambodia. METHOD: Randomized open-label non-inferiority study over 64 days. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-four patients were included in the study. The polymerase chain reaction genotyping-adjusted cure rates on day 63 were 97.5% (95% confidence interval, CI, 93.8-99.3) for DHA-PQP and 97.5% (95% CI, 93.8-99.3) for MAS3, P = 1.

Author(s): 
Janssens, B.
van Herp, M.
Goubert, L.
Chan, S.
Uong, S.
Nong, S.
Socheat, D.
Brockman, A.
Ashley, E. A.
Van Damme, W.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) have recently been adopted as first-line therapy for Plasmodium falciparum infections in most malaria-endemic countries. In this study, we estimated the association between artesunate-mefloquine therapy failure and genetic changes in the putative transporter, pfmdr1. Blood samples were acquired from 80 patients enrolled in an 2004 in vivo efficacy study in Pailin, Cambodia, and genotyped for pfmdr1 copy number and haplotype.

Author(s): 
Alker, Alisa P.
Lim, Pharath
Sem, Rithy
Shah, Naman K.
Yi, Poravuth
Bouth, Denis Mey
Tsuyuoka, Reiko
Maguire, Jason D.
Fandeur, Thierry
Ariey, Frédéric
Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda
Meshnick, Steven R.
Publication Title: 
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Resistance to many antimalaria drugs developed on the Cambodia-Thailand border long before developing elsewhere. Because antimalaria resistance is now a global problem, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line therapies in most malaria-endemic countries. However, recent clinical and molecular studies suggest the emergence of ACT-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Cambodia-Thailand border area, where standard ACT is artesunate and mefloquine.

Author(s): 
Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda
Meshnick, Steven R.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy from cheap ineffective monotherapies to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the global community are considering setting up a global subsidy to fund their purchase. However, in order to ensure that ACTs are correctly used and are accessible to the poor and remote communities who need them, specific interventions will be necessary and the additional costs need to be considered.

Author(s): 
Yeung, Shunmay
Van Damme, Wim
Socheat, Duong
White, Nicholas J.
Mills, Anne

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