Cambodia

Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010.

Author(s): 
Lanteri, Charlotte A.
Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna
Lon, Chanthap
Saunders, David L.
Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya
Yingyuen, Kritsanai
Bathurst, Ian
Ding, Xavier C.
Tyner, Stuart D.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. METHODS: Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia.

Author(s): 
Cox, Jonathan
Dy Soley, Lek
Bunkea, Tol
Sovannaroth, Siv
Soy Ty, Kheang
Ngak, Song
Bjorge, Steven
Ringwald, Pascal
Mellor, Steven
Sintasath, David
Meek, Sylvia
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time.

Author(s): 
Maude, Richard J.
Nguon, Chea
Ly, Po
Bunkea, Tol
Ngor, Pengby
Canavati de la Torre, Sara E.
White, Nicholas J.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Day, Nicholas P. J.
White, Lisa J.
Chuor, Char Meng
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Intensified efforts are urgently needed to contain and eliminate artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion. Médecins Sans Frontières plans to support the Ministry of Health in eliminating P. falciparum in an area with artemisinin resistance in the north-east of Cambodia. As a first step, the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and the presence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance were evaluated in two districts of Preah Vihear Province.

Author(s): 
Bosman, Philippe
Stassijns, Jorgen
Nackers, Fabienne
Canier, Lydie
Kim, Nimol
Khim, Saorin
Alipon, Sweet C.
Chuor Char, Meng
Chea, Nguon
Dysoley, Lek
Van den Bergh, Rafael
Etienne, William
De Smet, Martin
Ménard, Didier
Kindermans, Jean-Marie
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism.

Author(s): 
Popovici, Jean
Kao, Sokheng
Eal, Leanghor
Bin, Sophalai
Kim, Saorin
Ménard, Didier
Publication Title: 
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry

Recent research has highlighted the importance of traditional methods of healing in relation to the treatment of psychological distress in non-Western populations. This pilot study, conducted in Massachusetts, investigates what Buddhist Cambodian monks consider to be the causes, phenomenology and appropriate intervention strategies for anger among Cambodian refugees. Six monks were interviewed at four major temples in Massachusetts.

Author(s): 
Nickerson, Angela
Hinton, Devon E.

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