Capillaries

Publication Title: 
Comprehensive Physiology

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12 to 15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50% to 1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity.

Author(s): 
Haas, Tara L.
Lloyd, Pamela G.
Yang, Hsiao-Tung
Terjung, Ronald L.
Publication Title: 
British Medical Journal
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. K.
Monaghan, J. H.
Lederer, H.
Macfie, J. M.
Publication Title: 
Polish Medical Journal
Author(s): 
Grabowska, M. J.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

PURPOSE: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination treatment. Field pharmacokinetic studies would be simplified and facilitated by being able to use small volume capillary assays rather than venous blood. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between piperaquine concentrations measured in capillary blood, venous blood and venous plasma.

Author(s): 
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
Stepniewska, Kasia
Lindegardh, Niklas
Annerberg, Anna
Tarning, Joel
McGready, Rose
Phaiphun, Lucy
Singhasivanon, Pratap
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
Diabète & Métabolisme

Limited joint mobility (LJM) is a common complication of juvenile diabetes, usually assessed by a clinical method, the prayer test. Recently, the interest of the use of a goniometer in measuring subclinical joint limitation has been shown in adult diabetic patients.

Author(s): 
Tubiana-Rufi, N.
Prieur, A. M.
Bourden, R.
Priollet, P.
Czernichow, P.
Publication Title: 
Cardiovascular Research

OBJECTIVE: Resistin may be associated with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown whether resistin directly contributes to angiogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of resistin on angiogenic potential, including endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with resistin. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]thymidine incorporation and MTS assays. Cell migration was assessed by a modified Boyden chamber assay.

Author(s): 
Mu, Hong
Ohashi, Ryuji
Yan, Shaoyu
Chai, Hong
Yang, Hui
Lin, Peter
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cellular Physiology

Redox regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was investigated in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma (LPS + IFNgamma)-stimulated microvascular endothelial cells from mouse skeletal muscle. Unstimulated endothelial cells produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive to inhibition of NADPH oxidase (apocynin and DPI), mitochondrial respiration (rotenone) and NOS (L-NAME). LPS + IFNgamma caused a marked increase in ROS production; this increase was abolished by inhibition of NADPH oxidase (apocynin, DPI and p47phox deficiency).

Author(s): 
Wu, Feng
Tyml, Karel
Wilson, John X.
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in the impairment of capillary blood flow in sepsis and in the reversal of this impairment by ascorbate. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled laboratory study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in research institute. SUBJECTS: Adult male wild type (WT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-/-, inducible NOS (iNOS)-/-, endothelial NOS (eNOS)-/-, and gp91phox-/- mice. INTERVENTIONS: Sepsis was induced by feces injection into peritoneum (FIP).

Author(s): 
Tyml, Karel
Li, Fuyan
Wilson, John X.
Publication Title: 
Intensive Care Medicine

PURPOSE: Impaired microvascular perfusion in sepsis is not treated effectively because its mechanism is unknown. Since inflammatory and coagulation pathways cross-activate, we tested if stoppage of blood flow in septic capillaries is due to oxidant-dependent adhesion of platelets in these microvessels. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in wild type, eNOS(-/-), iNOS(-/-), and gp91phox(-/-) mice (n = 14-199) by injection of feces into the peritoneum. Platelet adhesion, fibrin deposition, and blood flow stoppage in capillaries of hindlimb skeletal muscle were assessed by intravital microscopy.

Author(s): 
Secor, Dan
Li, Fuyan
Ellis, Christopher G.
Sharpe, Michael D.
Gross, Peter L.
Wilson, John X.
Tyml, Karel
Publication Title: 
Microscopy and Microanalysis: The Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada

The current hypothesis of alveolar capillary membrane dysfunction fails to completely explain the severe and persistent leak of protein-rich fluid into the pulmonary interstitium, seen in the exudative phase of acute lung injury (ALI). The presence of intact red blood cells in the pulmonary interstitium may suggest mechanical failure of pulmonary arterioles and venules. These studies involved the pathological and ultrastructural evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature in Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced ALI.

Author(s): 
Saeed, Ali Imran
Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu
Price, Robert L.
Barker, James
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi

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