Evolution of pollen feeding in Heliconius has allowed exploitation of rich amino acid sources and dramatically reorganized life-history traits. In Heliconius, eggs are produced mainly from adult-acquired resources, leaving somatic development and maintenance to larva effort. This innovation may also have spurred evolution of chemical defence via amino acid-derived cyanogenic glycosides. In contrast, nonpollen-feeding heliconiines must rely almost exclusively on larval-acquired resources for both reproduction and defence.
The braconid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a major solitary, larval endoparasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The impact of dietary protein was investigated in the laboratory by comparing performance of C. plutellae on honey, which is commonly used to rear the parasitoid, to that on a novel diet made of honey and protein-rich beebread.
The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK).
The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment.
Semecarpus anacardium Linn. of the family Anacardiaceae has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine. We have evaluated the effect of S. anacardium nut milk extract on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory enzymes in liver and kidney mitochondria of dimethyl benzanthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. (Laminaceae) is an ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used in India, Nepal and Pakistan to treat several ailments including diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study is to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipaemic and antioxidant activities of Leucas cephalotes for its purported use in diabetes.
Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects of 3 types of dietary fibers -- sugarcane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY), and cellulose (CEL) -- on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism, and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into 4 groups that consumed high-fat diet alone (HFD) or high-fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL, respectively.
OBJECTIVE: The impact of increased fructose consumption on carbohydrate metabolism is a topic of current interest, but determination of serum level has been hindered due to low concentration and interference from serum glucose. We are reporting a method for the quantification of glucose and fructose in clinical samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The accuracy and precision of GC/MS and an enzymatic assay were compared. DESIGN AND METHODS: Mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of methyloxime peracetate derivatized aldose and ketose were determined.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The results of short-term studies in humans suggest that, compared with glucose, acute consumption of fructose leads to increased postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation and decreased postprandial fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of increased fructose consumption compared with isocaloric glucose consumption on substrate utilization and energy expenditure following sustained consumption and under energy-balanced conditions.