The role of haem iron (II) and oxidative stress in the activation and antimalarial activity of artemisinin is unclear. Thus, we submitted malaria parasite to modified culture conditions: artemisinin activity increased by 20-30% under an oxygen-rich atmosphere (20% O2 instead of "standard" 1% O2), and by 40-50% in the presence of carboxy-haemoglobin, and 2% carbon monoxide, conditions which inhibit haem iron (II) reactivity. In all cases, parasite growth and chloroquine activity were unaffected.
Severe forms of malaria infection, such as cerebral malaria (CM) and acute lung injury (ALI), are mainly caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Primary therapy with quinine or artemisinin derivatives is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from CM and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a novel carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CO-RM; ALF492) that fully protects mice against experimental CM (ECM) and ALI.
Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The neuropathological sequelae of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cannot be explained by hypoxic stress alone. CO poisoning also causes adduct formation between myelin basic protein (MBP) and malonylaldehyde, a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, resulting in an immunological cascade. MBP loses its normal cationic characteristics, and antibody recognition of MBP is altered. Immunohistochemical evidence of degraded MBP occurs in brain over days, along with influx of macrophages and CD-4 lymphocytes.
Neurological sequelae (NS) is a common complication of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and structural alterations of myelin basic protein have been proven to initiate immunological reactions leading to NS. To determine whether xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) participates in the pathophysiology of CO-mediated NS, we examined myelin basic protein in CO poisoned XOR-depleted rats and performed radial maze studies to evaluate the alteration of cognitive function.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous second messenger produced when heme oxygenase enzymes catabolize heme. We have demonstrated that CO can be therapeutic in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury; however, it is unclear whether CO can also offer protection in permanent ischemic stroke or what mechanism(s) underlies the effect. Heme oxygenase-1 neuroprotection was shown to be regulated by Nrf2; therefore, we investigated whether CO might partially exert neuroprotection by modulating the Nrf2 pathway.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is a dietary supplement commonly used to treat depression. SAMe facilitates dopamine and norepinephrine synthesis in the central nervous system. This study investigated the efficacy of SAMe for increasing tobacco abstinence among cigarette smokers. DESIGN: A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, three-arm, dose-ranging clinical trial was conducted. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive SAMe 1600 mg or 800 mg by mouth every day or a matching placebo for 8 weeks. All subjects received a behavioral smoking cessation intervention.
Carbon Monoxide (CO), long thought to be a simple environmental pollutant is now known to have a critical role in cellular functions ranging from vasodilation to circadian rhythms. In this review, we will begin with a discussion of the enzyme responsible for CO production: heme oxygenase. Because this review will focus on the effects of CO in the brain, we will transition to CO toxicology and determine if this simple diatomic gas has really earned its nefarious reputation.
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation.