Carcinogenicity Tests

Publication Title: 
Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
Author(s): 
Stevenson, D. E.
Publication Title: 
Human & Experimental Toxicology
Author(s): 
Neafsey, P. J.
Publication Title: 
Human & Experimental Toxicology
Author(s): 
Wilson, R.
Publication Title: 
National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

Goldenseal root powder is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, urinary disorders, hemorrhage, skin, mouth, and eye infections, and inflammation. The major alkaloids in goldenseal are berberine, hydrastine, and canadine. Goldenseal root powder was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences based on the potential for human exposure and the lack of carcinogenicity data, and because it is one of the most widely used herbs in the United States.

Author(s): 
National Toxicology Program
Publication Title: 
National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

Milk thistle extracts have been used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Treatment claims also include lowering cholesterol levels; reducing insulin resistance; reducing the growth of cancer cells in breast, cervical, and prostate gland cancers; and antiviral activity. Other reported uses of milk thistle in folk medicine include as a treatment for malarial fever, bronchitis, gallstones, jaundice, peritonitis, uterine congestion, varicose veins, and as a milk production stimulant for nursing mothers.

Author(s): 
National Toxicology Program
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) has been proposed to be an essential element, which may increase sensitivity to insulin and thus participate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Humans ingest Cr(III) both as a natural dietary constituent and in dietary supplements taken for weight loss and antidiabetic effects. Chromium picolinate (CP), a widely used supplement, contains Cr(III) chelated with three molecules of picolinic acid and was formulated in an attempt to improve the absorption of Cr(III).

Author(s): 
Stout, M. D.
Nyska, A.
Collins, B. J.
Witt, K. L.
Kissling, G. E.
Malarkey, D. E.
Hooth, M. J.
Publication Title: 
National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

Chromium picolinate monohydrate is the commercially available form of chromium picolinate. Chromium picolinate is one of a number of compounds that contain chromium in the trivalent state (Cr III), which is the predominant form of chromium in nature. Humans ingest Cr III in food and dietary supplements. The major uses of Cr III in the chemical and manufacturing industries include production of chromium pigments and leather tanning.

Author(s): 
National Toxicology Program
Publication Title: 
National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

Androstenedione is an androgen steroid that is normally synthesized within men and women and may be metabolized to a more potent androgen or estrogen hormone. It was nominated to the National Toxicology Program for study due to concern for adverse health effects associated with its chronic use as a dietary supplement by athletes (prior to the banning of its over the counter sales). In order to evaluate its subchronic and chronic toxicity, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered androstenedione (98% pure) by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years.

Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Androstenedione was marketed as a dietary supplement to increase muscle mass during training. Due to concern over long-term use, the NTP evaluated the subchronic and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of androstenedione in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. In subchronic studies, dose limiting effects were not observed. A chronic (2-year) exposure by gavage at 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg in rats and male mice, and 2, 10, or 50 mg/kg in female mice (50 mg/kg, maximum feasible dose) was conducted.

Author(s): 
Blystone, Chad R.
Elmore, Susan A.
Witt, Kristine L.
Malarkey, David E.
Foster, Paul M. D.
Publication Title: 
National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

Kava beverages, made from dried roots of the shrub Piper methysticum, have been used ceremonially and socially in the South Pacific and in Europe since the 1700s. The drink is reported to have pleasant mild psychoactive effects, similar to alcoholic beverages. In the United States, kava kava is an herbal product used extensively as an alternative to anti-anxiety drugs such as Xanax and Valium. It has also been reported as being used to help children with hyperactivity and as a skin-conditioning agent in cosmetics.

Author(s): 
National Toxicology Program

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