Cardiac Output

Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology

SUMMARY: The contractile function of the heart requires the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac muscle cells. The efficacy of Ca(2+) release depends on the amount of Ca(2+) loaded into the Ca(2+) store and the way in which this 'Ca(2+) load' influences the activity of the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR2).

Author(s): 
Dulhunty, Angela F.
Wium, Elize
Li, Linwei
Hanna, Amy D.
Mirza, Shamaruh
Talukder, Sadik
Ghazali, Nuur Aa
Beard, Nicole A.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): 
Kavanagh, T.
Shephard, R. J.
Pandit, V.
Doney, H.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal

The mechanism which normally affects distribution of blood flow through unventilated areas of the lung is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; this acts to divert the blood to well ventilated alveoli, resulting in a better ratio of ventilation to perfusion. Several reports have focused attention on the reduction or abolition of this reflex in the unventilated lung by most of the volatile anaesthetic agents used in clinical practice. This response was not abolished by the intravenous anaesthetic agents.

Author(s): 
Weinreich, A. I.
Silvay, G.
Lumb, P. D.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

Recently it was reported that the pharmacokinetics of propofol are modified by changes in cardiac output. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac output and other factors on the hypnotic dose of propofol. One-hundred surgical patients were administered indocyanine green immediately before the induction of anesthesia to measure their cardiac outputs and blood volumes. Propofol (250 microg. kg(-1). min(-1)) was infused IV for 8 min, and the hypnotic dose of propofol and the time to hypnosis were recorded.

Author(s): 
Adachi, Y. U.
Watanabe, K.
Higuchi, H.
Satoh, T.
Publication Title: 
Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology

This investigation assessed the hemodynamic changes during the slow induction of anesthesia using propofol, and evaluated the effects of cardiac output (CO) and other factors on the hypnotic dose of propofol, the time for hypnosis and the plasma propofol concentration. We studied 26 scheduled surgical patients and induced anesthesia with continuous infusion of propofol at the rate of 15 mg.kg-1.hr-1. The required dose of propofol and time for hypnosis were determined and the plasma concentration of propofol was measured after the administration of propofol 2 mg.kg-1.

Author(s): 
Adachi, Y.
Wada, H.
Watanabe, K.
Uchihashi, Y.
Higuchi, H.
Satoh, T.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Ayurveda is an Indian system of medicine. Despite clinical efficacy, lack of scientific validation has limited the effective use of Ayurvedic drugs. Cardoguard is an Ayurvedic antihypertensive drug formulated by Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd., Kerala, India. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a modifiable risk factor, and regression of LVH reduces the propensity for adverse cardiovascular events. This study was taken up with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Cardoguard in the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

Author(s): 
Sankar, Vandana
Nair, Renuka R.
Harikrishnan, Vijayakumar S.
Fernandez, Adelaide C.
Kumar, Cherumanal S. Krishna
Madhavachandran, Viswanathamenon
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association

The thoracic pump and the abdominal pump are osteopathic manipulative (OM) lymphatic pump techniques frequently used by osteopathic physicians to treat patients with infections (eg, pneumonia, otitis media). Although there is a widely accepted belief among the osteopathic medical profession that increasing lymphatic flow is beneficial, no measurements of lymph flow during osteopathic manipulative treatment have been reported. The authors surgically instrumented five mongrel dogs to record lymphatic flow in the thoracic duct (TDF) and cardiac variables during three intervention protocols.

Author(s): 
Knott, E. Marty
Tune, Johnathan D.
Stoll, Scott T.
Downey, H. Fred
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Advanced resuscitation techniques are dependent on drug therapy to increase survival. Because drugs must reach their site of action instantaneously, the choice of appropriate route of administration may be critical. To study the pharmacokinetics of drug administration by peripheral and central venous routes during resuscitation, nine mongrel dogs were studied. Arterial blood pressure and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Cardiac output was evaluated before resuscitation to determine control levels.

Author(s): 
Talit, U.
Braun, S.
Halkin, H.
Shargorodsky, B.
Laniado, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry

A 69 year old man is described with a 12 year history of intermittent syncope associated with ingesting solid food, mainly after having fasted. He was taking enalapril, propranolol, bendrofluazide (bendroflumethiazide), omeprazole, finasteride, and aspirin. Detailed investigations, including gastrointestinal evaluation, measurement of various gut hormones, and autonomic testing, indicated no abnormality. A liquid meal, performed before fasting, failed to elicit an episode. However, a solid meal after an overnight fast provoked near-syncope.

Author(s): 
Deguchi, K.
Mathias, C. J.
Publication Title: 
Rinshō Shinkeigaku = Clinical Neurology

The clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not based on the identification of the extrapyramidal symptom such as bradykinesia, restinbg tremor, rigidity, but also other non-motor symptom (REM sleep disorder, autonomic dysfunction, hyposmia etc). According to the cardio-sympathetic dysfunction, it is well known abnormal MIBG and orthostatic hypotension finding was seen in early disease stage. Furthermore denervation supersensitivity using β1 stimulant correlates the severity of MIBG image, so that this abnormal cardiac function induces inadequate cardiac capacity for exercise.

Author(s): 
Hirayama, Masaaki
Nakamura, Tomohiko
Sobue, Gen

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