A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is safe to cut the temporary epicardial pacing wires (TEPWs) flush with the patient's skin surface prior to discharge. Altogether 105 relevant papers were identified of which 13 case reports represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date, country of publication, complications, the culprit TEPW and relevant outcomes are tabulated. All case reports demonstrated a wide spectrum of complications.
The hypothesis of probable differences between subjects under life-extending treatment and healthy people was tested by applying the Lüscher Colour test to 2 groups of patients, one under dialysis, the other cardiopathic pacemaker wearers, and comparing them with a control group of healthy subjects. The results partly confirm the hypothesis and also show a further differentiation between the dialysis and pace-maker groups. A support programme using relaxation techniques (autogenous training and/or hypnosis) to balance and reduce problems revealed is therefore proposed.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of atrial synchronism for pacing therapy of patients with mixed carotid sinus syndrome. On 23 patients (21 m, 2 f; mean age 69 +/- 8 years) affected by symptomatic mixed carotid sinus syndrome we performed: 1) the study of ventriculo-atrial conduction, 2) the evaluation of pacemaker effect and 3) the carotid sinus massage in standing position during VVI and DVI temporary pacing. All patients received a permanent DVI pacemaker and then underwent a two-month period single-blind, randomized, cross-over study on DVI vs VVI mode.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of atrial synchronism for pacing therapy of patients with mixed carotid sinus syndrome. In 23 patients (21 m, two f; mean age 69 +/- 8 years) affected by symptomatic mixed carotid sinus syndrome we performed: (1) Research of ventriculo-atrial conduction, orthostatic hypotension and pacemaker effect; and (2) Carotid sinus massage in the standing position during VVI and DVI temporary pacing.
The real incidence of pacemaker implants for carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) and the relation between CSS and sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is not precisely known. Patients who needed pacing therapy because of atrial bradyarrhythmias were investigated by means of carotid sinus massage, dynamic ECG, and invasive electrophysiological sinus node evaluation.
The natural history of patients with severe carotid sinus syndrome, and the efficacy of permanent pacemaker treatment are not clearly known. A randomized treatment/nontreatment prospective study was performed in 60 patients affected by carotid sinus syndrome whose symptoms were judged to involve risk of major trauma or interfered with their daily activity. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 28 patients to no therapy (nonpacing group), and 32 to VVI (n = 18) or DDD (n = 14) pacemaker implant (pacing group).
The carotid sinus syndrome is a well-known cause of syncope: the cardio-inhibitory forms are the easiest to diagnose and probably the easiest to treat. However, the vasodepressive forms are as common but their outcome is mainly unknown. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients underwent endocavitary electrophysiological studies with invasive blood pressure measurement for unexplained syncope between October 1984 and January 1990. A carotid sinus syndrome was diagnosed in 215 cases.
The recording of spontaneous episodes of bradycardiac neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) has shown that: a prolonged ventricular asystole seems necessary to cause syncope; asystole is preceded by other bradyarrhythmias in the vast majority of cases; some warning symptoms precede the loss of consciousness in most cases; conventional dual-chamber pacing is efficacious both in patients with a positive response to carotid sinus massage (CSM) and eyeball compression test (EBC) and in those with a positive response to tilt-testing (TT).
Syncope in the elderly is an important health care issue because of the large patient population, challenging diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and potentially devastating consequences. Significant comorbidity and atypical clinical presentations render a precise determination of the cause of syncope difficult. Recent studies suggest that noninvasive tests, such as carotid sinus massage or tilt-table testing, can be helpful in the diagnostic workup.
Recent comments and amendments to routine algorithm of P. Safar's cardiopulmonary resuscitation, known as the ABCD principle, are critically analyzed. The primary mechanisms of thanatogenesis in sudden death in the majority of cases are not respiratory problems (requiring ABCD algorithm), but cardiac rhythm disorders.