A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is safe to cut the temporary epicardial pacing wires (TEPWs) flush with the patient's skin surface prior to discharge. Altogether 105 relevant papers were identified of which 13 case reports represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date, country of publication, complications, the culprit TEPW and relevant outcomes are tabulated. All case reports demonstrated a wide spectrum of complications.
Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: Journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology
BACKGROUND: Open heart surgery often implies a threat to life and is associated with fear and anxiety. It is also a strong encroachment on body and integrity and adjusting life afterwards could be difficult. Despite improvements in treatment the patients' reactions appear to be unchanged. Introducing a lifeworld perspective would supply a different kind of knowledge based upon the patients' own experiences coloured by their linguistic usage and bodily expressions.
Eighty-five patients ranging from 12 h to 7 years of age were included in this study. In the first group 35 cases received ketamine, gallamine and oxygen for surgery on the great vessels. Ketamine provided satisfactory analgesia and amnesia. Heart rate did not change significantly. Gallamine gave additional safety in the prevention of bradycardia. One hundred per cent oxygen increased oxygen saturation and made more oxygen available for the tissues. The combination secured favorable conditions even in cases of sevre right to left shunt.
Thirty patients scheduled for elective cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were interviewed pre-operatively and postoperatively to assess changes in their emotional state and recollections, both aware and unaware, of intra-operative events. A random selection of patients heard a prerecorded audio tape towards the end of bypass after they were rewarmed to 37 degrees C. The tape contained suggestions for patients to touch their chin during the postoperative interview, to remember three sentences and to recover quickly. The interviewers were blind to the experimental condition.
BACKGROUND: The search for a drug-independent monitor to determine depth of anaesthesia and hypnosis continues. The bispectral analysis (BIS) of the EEG correlates well with the clinical dose-response of hypnotic drugs during induction, but the effect on BIS of an opiate induction, as for coronary bypass surgery, is not known. METHODS: Fourteen patients scheduled for elective coronary bypass surgery were studied. BIS was recorded during induction in 7 patients receiving 10 microg/kg fentanyl without any hypnotic agent and in 7 patients receiving 0.5 mg/kg propofol before the fentanyl dose.
This review focuses on the mechanisms and sites of action underlying beta-adrenergic antagonism in perioperative medicine. A large body of knowledge has recently emerged from basic and clinical research concerning the mechanisms of the life-saving effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists (beta-AAs) in high-risk cardiac patients. This article re-emphasizes the mechanisms underlying beta-adrenergic antagonism and also illuminates novel rationales behind the use of perioperative beta-AAs from a biological point of view.
BACKGROUND: Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to perform during the anesthesia procedure. This problem was addressed by defining an index which reflected the peak amplitudes and latencies of the AEP, developed to improve the clinical interpretation of the AEP.