Exceptional aging has been defined as maintenance of physical and cognitive function beyond the median lifespan despite a history of diseases and/or concurrent subclinical conditions. Since immunity is vital to individual fitness, we examined immunologic fingerprint(s) of highly functional elders. Therefore, survivors of the Cardiovascular Health Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA were recruited (n?=?140; mean age?=?86 years) and underwent performance testing. Blood samples were collected and examined blindly for humoral factors and T cell phenotypes.
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter, which is phylogenetically conserved in a wide range of species from nematodes to humans. In mammals, age-related changes in serotonin systems are known risk factors of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, faecal incontinence and cardiovascular diseases. A decline in serotonin function with aging would be consistent with observations of age-related changes in behaviours, such as sleep, sexual behaviour and mood all of which are linked to serotonergic function. Despite this little is known about serotonin in relation to aging.
Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (1) to determine if there were statistically significant immediate effects of anterior upper thoracic chiropractic manipulative therapy on cardiovascular response in normotensive individuals and (2) to quantify responses if any were found.
Recently the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) has been implicated in cardiovascular regulation. Both pressor and depressor responses can be elicited by the chemical stimulation of the Arc. The direction of cardiovascular responses (increase or decrease) elicited from the Arc depends on the baseline blood pressure. The pressor responses are mediated via increase in sympathetic nerve activity and involve activation of the spinal ionotropic glutamate receptors.