Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library
Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals may be one of the most feasible approaches for cancer control. Phytochemicals obtained from vegetables, fruits, spices, teas, herbs and medicinal plants, such as terpenoids and other phenolic compounds, have been proven to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in various organs in pre-clinical models.
OBJECTIVE: While tomato product supplementation, containing antioxidant carotenoids, including lycopene, decreases oxidative stress, the role of purified lycopene as an antioxidant remains unclear. Thus, we tested the effects of different doses of purified lycopene supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy volunteers.
The California Hass avocado ( Persea americana ) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research.
Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-labeling.
Consumption of tomato products has been associated with decreased risks of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and therefore the biological functions of tomato carotenoids such as lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene are being investigated. To study the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of these carotenoids, a bioengineered Escherichia coli model was evaluated for laboratory-scale production of stable isotope-labeled carotenoids.
Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between tomato consumption and serum and tissue lycopene (LYC) levels with risk of some chronic diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease. LYC, the red carotenoid found in tomatoes, is often considered to be the primary bioactive carotenoid in tomatoes that mediates health benefits, but other colorless precursor carotenoids, phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF), are also present in substantial quantities. PE and PF are readily absorbed from tomato foods and tomato extracts by humans.
While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched (13)C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies.
Intake of lycopene, a red, tetraterpene carotenoid found in tomatoes is epidemiologically associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease processes, and lycopene has demonstrated bioactivity in numerous in vitro and animal models. However, our understanding of absorption, tissue distribution, and biological impact in humans remains very limited. Lycopene absorption is strongly impacted by dietary composition, especially the amount of fat.
Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) has a history in folk medicine of helping respiratory problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and cold symptoms. The drugs and extracts are prepared from raw material of pansy; it is a component of some prepared antitussives, cholagogues, dermatological medicines, roborants and tonics, alternatives, and anti-phlebitis remedies. Wild pansy is indigenous to or naturalized in large parts of Europe and the Middle East as far as Central Asia, also found through the United States.
High antioxidant intakes are inversely related to risk for many diseases. However, there is no comprehensive instrument that captures consumption of antioxidant nutrients from both foods and dietary supplements. This report examines the validity of a newly developed questionnaire assessing self-reported dietary and supplemental intakes of antioxidant nutrients (carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E).