PURPOSE: To report a case of Horner's syndrome and dissection of the internal carotid artery after chiropractic manipulation of the neck. METHODS: Case report. A 44-year-old woman with no prior ocular or vascular history presented with severe right-sided head and neck pain, ptosis, and miosis following chiropractic treatment for a strained right shoulder muscle. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck and brain revealed a dissection of the right internal carotid artery as well as a suggestion of subtle dissection in the right vertebral artery.
Despite the increasing incidence of cervical artery dissection (CAD) due to chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine, risk factors predisposing to vascular damage are still unknown. In the present study we measured fasting total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration in 4 subjects with manipulation-related CAD selected from a larger series of patients with spontaneous dissection of the neck arteries (sCAD) and in a group of 36 control subjects. C677T MTHFR genotypes and 844ins68bp CBS genotypes were also determined.
CASE REPORT: We report on a 37-year old patient with sudden onset of pain of the right scalp and an ipsilateral small pupil, presenting five weeks after chiropractic manipulation of the neck. METHODS/RESULTS: Pharmacologic pupil testing showed a postganglionic Horner's syndrome on the right side. Magnetic resonance angiography confirmed the diagnosis of a dissection of the right internal carotid artery at a subacute stage. CONCLUSION: There appears to be a causal relationship between carotid artery dissection and the chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine.
Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is an independent risk factor for cervical artery dissection. METHODS: Using a nested case-control design, the authors reviewed all patients under age 60 with cervical arterial dissection (n = 151) and ischemic stroke or TIA from between 1995 and 2000 at two academic stroke centers. Controls (n = 306) were selected to match cases by sex and within age strata. Cases and controls were solicited by mail, and respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.
BACKGROUND: To determine the relationship between chiropractic manipulative therapy and internal carotid artery dissection, a MEDLINE literature search was performed for the years 1966 through 2000 using the terms internal carotid dissection. Literature that included information concerning causation of ICAD, as well as all case studies and series, was selected for review.
Cervical artery dissection (CAD) recurrences are rare but the risk could be higher during the first month. Twenty-seven consecutive patients admitted for an acute CAD were investigated using a standardized imaging protocol. An early asymptomatic recurrence was observed in three patients 49 to 53 days after the initial diagnosis. Anticoagulation was maintained and the prognosis remained good. Early CAD recurrences may have been underestimated previously, because asymptomatic recurrences seem to be more frequent than symptomatic ones.
The highly variable clinical course of cervical artery dissections still poses a major challenge to the treating physician. This study was conducted (1) to describe the differences in clinical and angiographic presentation of patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissections (CAD, VAD), (2) to define the circumstances that are related to bilateral arterial dissections, and (3) to determine factors that predict a poor outcome. Retrospectively and by standardised interview, we studied 126 patients with cervical artery dissections.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: To examine the similarities and dissimilarities between cervical chiropractic manipulative therapy and whiplash, and their respective relation to cervical artery dissection. DATA SOURCES: A literature synthesis used MEDLINE-PubMed and MANTIS literature searches. A total list of 99 relevant articles was generated. Additional references were collected from citations incorporated within the included articles. RESULTS: Both neck manipulation and motor vehicle collision events apply loads to the spinal column rapidly.
The clinical association between carotid artery dissection and oculosympathetic palsy is well-known. However, the occurrence of this combination with chiropractic manipulation of the cervical neck is rare. We describe the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian American male who underwent cervical manipulation for neck pain. The following day he noticed drooping of his left eyelid, with an unequal pupil size. Imaging later confirmed carotid artery dissection.