Caspases

Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology

In chronic infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pathogen growth and immunopathology are affected by the induction of a proper balanced Th1/Th2 response to the pathogen and by antigen-triggered activation-induced T cell death. Here, by using S. japonicum infection or schistosome antigens-immunized mouse model, or antigens in vitro stimulation, we report that during the early stage of S.

Author(s): 
Xu, Xinyu
Wen, Xiaoyun
Chi, Ying
He, Lei
Zhou, Sha
Wang, Xuefeng
Zhao, Jiaqing
Liu, Feng
Su, Chuan
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The sesquiterpene lactone dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semisynthetic derivative of the herbal antimalaria drug artemisinin, is cytotoxic to human tumor cells. Treatment of Jurkat T-lymphoma cells with DHA induced a breakdown of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis induction.

Author(s): 
Handrick, René
Ontikatze, Teona
Bauer, Kerstin-Daniela
Freier, Florian
Rübel, Amelie
Dürig, Jan
Belka, Claus
Jendrossek, Verena
Publication Title: 
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)

Semisynthetic artemisinin-based therapies are the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria, but next-generation synthetic drug candidates are urgently required to improve availability and respond to the emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites. Artemisinins are embryotoxic in animal models and induce apoptosis in sensitive mammalian cells. Understanding the cytotoxic propensities of antimalarial drug candidates is crucial to their successful development and utilization.

Author(s): 
Copple, Ian M.
Mercer, Amy E.
Firman, James
Donegan, Gail
Herpers, Bram
Wong, Michael Hl
Chadwick, James
Bringela, Andreia D.
Cristiano, Maria L. S.
van de Water, Bob
Ward, Stephen A.
O'Neill, Paul M.
Park, B. Kevin
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, cerebral malaria (CM)-associated mortalities remain as high as 30%. Thus, adjunctive therapies are urgently needed to prevent or reduce such mortalities. Overproduction of CXCL10 in a subset of CM patients has been shown to be tightly associated with fatal human CM. Mice with deleted CXCL10 gene are partially protected against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) mortality indicating the importance of CXCL10 in the pathogenesis of CM. However, the direct effect of increased CXCL10 production on brain cells is unknown.

Author(s): 
Wilson, Nana O.
Solomon, Wesley
Anderson, Leonard
Patrickson, John
Pitts, Sidney
Bond, Vincent
Liu, Mingli
Stiles, Jonathan K.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits potent anti-malarial and anti-cancer activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of a combination of DHA and doxorubicin (DOX) on human breast cancer cells. METHODS: MTT assay and the combination index (CI) were used to show the anti-proliferative effects and calculate the synergism potential, respectively. Flow cytometry assay was used to detect apoptosis and the intracellular accumulation of DOX. JC-1 staining was used to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential.

Author(s): 
Wu, Guo-Sheng
Lu, Jin-Jian
Guo, Jia-Jie
Huang, Ming-Qing
Gan, Li
Chen, Xiu-Ping
Wang, Yi-Tao
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of cell death (apoptosis) by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model. The viability of PC-3 cells, but not a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), was reduced significantly on treatment with guggulsterone in a concentration-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Singh, Shivendra V.
Zeng, Yan
Xiao, Dong
Vogel, Victor G.
Nelson, Joel B.
Dhir, Rajiv
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, causes apoptosis in cancer cells but the sequence of events leading to cell death is poorly understood. We now show that guggulsterone-induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI)-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK).

Author(s): 
Singh, Shivendra V.
Choi, Sunga
Zeng, Yan
Hahm, Eun-Ryeong
Xiao, Dong
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze (scientific synonyms: Vernonia anthelmintica; black cumin) is one of the ingredients of an Ayurvedic preparation, called "Kayakalp", commonly applied to treat skin disorders in India and Southeast Asia. Despite its well known anti-inflammatory property on skin diseases, the anti-cancer effect of C. anthelminticum seeds on skin cancer is less documented.

Author(s): 
Looi, Chung Yeng
Moharram, Bushra
Paydar, Mohammadjavad
Wong, Yi Li
Leong, Kok Hoong
Mohamad, Khalit
Arya, Aditya
Wong, Won Fen
Mustafa, Mohd Rais
Publication Title: 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

Amooranin (AMR) is a triterpene acid isolated from the stem bark of a tropical tree (Amoora rohituka) grown wild in India. A. rohituka stem bark is one of the components of a medicinal preparation used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of human malignancies. We investigated the mechanism of cell death associated with AMR cytotoxicity in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7, multidrug resistant breast carcinoma MCF-7/TH and breast epithelial MCF-10A cell lines. AMR IC50 values ranged between 3.8-6.9 microg/ml among MCF-7, MCF-7/TH and MCF-10A cells.

Author(s): 
Rabi, Thangaiyan
Ramachandran, Cheppail
Fonseca, Hugo B.
Nair, Raveendran P. K.
Alamo, Arturo
Melnick, Steven J.
Escalon, Enrique
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of cell death (apoptosis) by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model. The viability of PC-3 cells, but not a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), was reduced significantly on treatment with guggulsterone in a concentration-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Singh, Shivendra V.
Zeng, Yan
Xiao, Dong
Vogel, Victor G.
Nelson, Joel B.
Dhir, Rajiv
Tripathi, Yamini B.

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