Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes.
The ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (T. chebula RETZ) (Combretsceae), which is a native plant in India and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used as a popular folk medicine for homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and cardiotonic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract of fruit of T. chebula on the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury observed in cultured rat primary hepatocytes and rat liver. Both treatment and pretreatment of the hepatocytes with the T.
Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
In vertebrates and invertebrates, relationships between diet and health are controlled by a conserved signalling pathway responsive to insulin-like ligands. In invertebrate models for example, forkhead transcription factor family O (FOXO) transcription factors in this pathway regulate the rate of aging in response to dietary cues, and in vertebrates, obesity and age-induced deficits in the same pathway are thought to contribute to dysregulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK).
The pronounced effects of the epigenetic diet (ED) and caloric restriction (CR) have on epigenetic gene regulation have been documented in many pre-clinical and clinical studies. Understanding epigenetics is of high importance because of the concept that external factors such as nutrition and diet may possess the ability to alter gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence. The ED introduces bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds such as sulforaphane (SFN), curcumin (CCM), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol (RSV) that are thought to aid in extending the human lifespan.
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures.
Many diseases have been described to be associated with inflammatory processes. The currently available anti-inflammatory drug therapy is often not successful or causes intolerable side effects. Thus, new anti-inflammatory substances are still urgently needed. Plants were the first source of remedies in the history of mankind. Since their chemical characterization in the 19th century, herbal bioactive compounds have fueled drug development. Also, nowadays, new plant-derived agents continuously enrich our drug arsenal (e.g., vincristine, galantamine, and artemisinin).
The inhibition effects of tea theaflavins complex (TFs), theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TFDG), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and an unidentified compound (UC) on the growth of human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells, gastric cancer MKN-28 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia LH-60 cells were investigated. TFs was obtained through the catalysis of catechins with immobilized polyphenols oxidase. TFDG, TF2B and UC were isolated from TFs with high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).
Theaflavins were synthesized from tea polyphenols extracted from green tea using an immobilized polyphenol oxidase system. To optimize the production of theaflavins, response surface methodology was applied to determine the effects of five critical variables and their mutual interactions on theaflavin biosynthesis at five levels. A total of 52 individual experiments were performed and a statistical model predicted that the highest theaflavin concentration was 0.766 mg ml(-1) at optimized conditions.
The dynamics of tea catechins and organic acids in fermented fluid and yeast cells were studied. The concentration of eight kinds of catechins solution decreased by from 29.6% to 47.6%, respectively, some catechins were absorbed and accumulated by yeast cells, but the amount in the cells was very low during the fermentation process. The investigation of catechins resolved in four citrate buffers with a pH range of 2.6-5.6 for 18 h showed that most catechins were stable in buffer solutions of pH 4.6 and 5.6, and significant losses took place in solutions of pH 2.6 and 3.6.