Causality

Publication Title: 
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie

The various mechanisms that may explain the association between brain dysfunction and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS) leading to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes have been reviewed. A Medline search was conducted until September 2003, and articles published in various national and international journals were reviewed. Experts working in the field were also consulted.

Author(s): 
Singh, Ram B.
Pella, Daniel
Mechirova, Viola
Otsuka, Kuniaki
Publication Title: 
Sexual Health

OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated review of condom migration as a means of highlighting methodological issues for future studies of this behavioural issue. METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were carried out in October 2010 and updated in January 2011 for English-language articles published from 1994 onward. RESULTS: Evidence addressing condom migration from microbicides and vaccines is vastly underdeveloped, simply because these products are still experimental.

Author(s): 
Crosby, Richard A.
Ricks, Janelle
Young, April
Publication Title: 
Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery

OBJECTIVE: To apply the Bradford Hill criteria, which are widely used to establish causality between an environmental agent and disease, to evaluate the relationship between over-the-counter intranasal zinc gluconate therapy and anosmia. DESIGN: Patient and literature review applying the Bradford Hill criteria on causation. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, Nasal Dysfunction Clinic.

Author(s): 
Davidson, Terence M.
Smith, Wendy M.
Publication Title: 
Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewn?trznej

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by the increased risk of fractures, decreased bone mass and bone quality. The number of patients suffering from osteoporosis still increase due to the extension of the lifespan in the developed countries. The low-energy hip fractures are the most severe complications of the disease, lethal in some cases. The number of hip-fractures in Poland exceeds 30,000 per year. Senile osteoporosis makes 20% of primary osteoporosis. The calcium and vitamin D3 intake from diet or their supplementation are crucial in the ethiopathogenesis of this disease.

Author(s): 
Wawrzyniak, Anna
Horst-Sikorska, Wanda
Publication Title: 
Developmental Genetics
Author(s): 
Orr, W. C.
Publication Title: 
Trauma, Violence & Abuse

Exposure to interpersonal violence or abuse affects the physical and emotional well-being of affected individuals. In particular, exposure to trauma during development increases the risk of psychiatric and other medical disorders beyond the risks associated with adult violence exposure. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major mediating pathway of the stress response, contribute to the long-standing effects of early life trauma.

Author(s): 
Neigh, Gretchen N.
Gillespie, Charles F.
Nemeroff, Charles B.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

The search for the causes of schizophrenia has predominantly originated from 2 research paradigms; genetics and epidemiology. While each approach has made important contributions to etiological understanding, neither has fully resolved the exact milieu of risk factors for schizophrenia, and there is growing recognition that several pathways to the onset of such disorders may exist.

Author(s): 
Kirkbride, James B.
Jones, Peter B.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype.

Author(s): 
Teicher, Martin H.
Samson, Jacqueline A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology

The relationship of depressive disorders with early parental losses and rearing experiences was studied among 120 pregnant women. They were diagnosed following the Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Loss experience was defined either as loss of a parent before the age of 16 by death, or separation for 12 months or longer. The perceived rearing experience was examined by administering the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). An onset of depressive disorders, antenatal depression, was observed among 19 (16%) women.

Author(s): 
Kitamura, T.
Toda, M. A.
Shima, S.
Sugawara, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

The role of attachment style, self-esteem, and relationship attributions as possible mediators between abusive childhood experiences and difficulties in establishing supportive love relationships in adulthood were investigated in a sample of women known to be at risk of experiencing relationship problems. Measures of child abuse, the quality of love relationships, and the three potential mediators were made concurrently in adulthood.

Author(s): 
McCarthy, G.
Taylor, A.

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