The thiazolidinedione (TZDs) class of drugs are very effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But due to the adverse effects of synthetic TZDs, their use is strictly regulated. The therapeutic actions of TZDs are mediated via modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Naturally occurring PPAR? modulators are more desirable as they lack the serious adverse effects caused by TZDs. This has prompted the exploitation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine, for their potential PPAR? activity.
Soy intake reduces cholesterol levels. However, both the identity of the soy component or components that contribute to this reduction and the cellular mechanism producing this reduction are unknown. Soy consists of protein, lipids, fiber, and phytochemicals including isoflavones. We propose that the isoflavone component of soy mediates this effect, at least in part, by affecting cellular sterol homeostasis.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the active metabolite of vitamin D3, inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the proliferation of these cells remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we used microarray technology to identify target genes of 1,25(OH)2D3 in androgen-responsive prostate cancer LNCaP cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 up-regulated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) by approximately 5-fold in these cells.
Acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a triterpenoid isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw and Boswellia serrata, has been found to inhibit tumor cell growth and to induce apoptosis. The apoptotic effects and the mechanisms of action of AKBA were studied in LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. AKBA induced apoptosis in both cell lines at concentrations above 10 microg/mL. AKBA-induced apoptosis was correlated with the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 as well as with poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
Cytokines generated from macrophages contribute to pathogenesis of inflammation-associated diseases. Here we show that γ-tocotrienol (γ-TE), a natural vitamin E form, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production without affecting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-10 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages.
The ability to regulate specific genes of energy metabolism in response to fasting and feeding is an important adaptation allowing survival of intermittent food supplies. However, little is known about transcription factors involved in such responses in higher organisms.
Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism.
Restricting food intake to a level below that consumed voluntarily (85%, 70% and 50% of the ad libitum energy intake for 3 or 30 days) and re-feeding ad libitum for 48 h results in an increase of malic enzyme (ME) gene expression in rat white adipose tissue. The increase of ME gene expression was much more pronounced in rats maintained on restricted diet for 30 days than for 3 days. The changes in ME gene expression resembled the changes in the content of SREBP-1 in white adipose tissue.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To determine the protective effects of nourishing spleen yin recipe (Zibu Piyin Recipe, ZBPYR), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neuronal cells responding to the stress by using sero-pharmacological method. METHODS: The mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a cells were treated with tunicamycin (Tm, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation). The ZBPYR-treated cell group was established by incubating cells with ZBPYR serum for one hour and treated with Tm.