Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
We characterized immune modulating functions of porcine γδ T cell subsets in rotavirus infection using a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and sort-purified lymphocyte autologous co-cultures. We demonstrated that CD2+CD8- and CD2-CD8- γδ T cells have mainly pro-inflammatory function as evident by directly secreting IFN-γ or promoting CD4+ αβ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, whereas CD2+CD8+ γδ T cells mainly exert regulatory T cell function by expressing FoxP3, secreting IL-10 and TGF-β or increasing IL-10 and TGF-β production by CD4+ αβ T cells.
Purified silymarin-derived natural products from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) block hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. An intravenous formulation of silibinin (SIL), a major component of silymarin, displays anti-HCV effects in humans and also inhibits T-cell proliferation in vitro. We show that SIL inhibited replication of HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells, PBMCs, and CEM cells in vitro.
Zymosan has previously been reported to have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that low dose zymosan prevented or reversed chronic and relapsing paralysis in EAE. In suppressing CNS autoimmune inflammation, zymosan not only regulated APC costimulator and MHC class II expression, but also promoted differentiation of regulatory T cells. Following adoptive transfer of zymosan-primed CD4(+) T cells, recipient mice were protected from EAE. In contrast, a MAPK inhibitor and a blocker of β-glucan, reversed the effects of zymosan.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of immune responses. There is evidence that miRNAs also participate in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but how the miRNAs regulate the pathogenesis of MS is still under investigation. The identification of new members of the miRNA family associated with the pathogenesis of MS could facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that the level of miRNA let-7e is significantly upregulated in EAE, an animal model of MS using miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR.
Differentiation of CD4+ T cells into effector or regulatory phenotypes is tightly controlled by the cytokine milieu, complex intracellular signaling networks and numerous transcriptional regulators. We combined experimental approaches and computational modeling to investigate the mechanisms controlling differentiation and plasticity of CD4+ T cells in the gut of mice. Our computational model encompasses the major intracellular pathways involved in CD4+ T cell differentiation into T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg).
Background. CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell activation levels often remain elevated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). T-cell activation predicts early death and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence.
T helper (Th) cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based and agent-based modeling (ABM) to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease.
Chemoresistance due to heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) hampers the long-term efficacy of first-line therapies for lung cancer. Current combination therapies for lung cancer provide only modest improvement in survival, implicating necessity for novel approaches that suppress malignant growth and stimulate long-term antitumor immunity. Oxidative stress in the TME promotes immunosuppression by tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which inhibit host protective antitumor immunity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))].