Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis (phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4 h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aqueous extract of Terminalia chebular fruits was reported to have anti-hyperglycemia and anti-diabetic complication effects. The present study therefore investigated the protective mechanism of chebulic acid, a phenolcarboxylic acid compound isolated from the ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula against advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)-induced endothelial cell dysfunction.
Terminalia chebula Retz. has been used in India for a long time to treat many diseases, and its extract was reported to have antidiabetic activity in vivo. In this study, T. chebula methanolic extract (TCE) containing 2.7 % chebulic acid was evaluated for its preventive effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and endothelial cell dysfunction.
Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), expressed by human lung mast cells (HLMCs), mediates their adhesion to airway smooth muscle (ASM), and contributes to ASM-dependent HLMC proliferation and survival. CADM1 is expressed in alternatively spliced isoforms, but those present in HLMCs and their function are not known. We cloned three functional and one cryptic non-functional isoform with alternative splicing between exons 7/11 and 1/2, respectively, from HLMCs and human MC lines (HMC-1 and LAD2).
Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity.
The vast majority of the 1-2 million malaria associated deaths that occur each year are due to anemia and cerebral malaria (the attachment of erythrocytes containing mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum to the endothelial cells that line the vascular beds of the brain). A "model system" for the study of cerebral malaria employs amelanotic melanoma cells as the "target" cells in an in vitro cytoadherence assay.
The in vivo and in vitro effects of antimalarials on cytoadherence and rosette formation were studied in 17 patients with severe and 46 with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Cytoadherence was increased in severe malaria (P<.001). Artesunate and artemether were more potent than quinine in inhibiting both adherence properties. Artesunate was the most rapidly acting drug tested, producing >50% inhibition of both cytoadherence and rosetting in vivo and in vitro within 2 hr of drug exposure.
Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity.
Placental malaria is a significant cause of all malaria-related deaths globally for which no drugs have been developed to specifically disrupt its pathogenesis. To facilitate the discovery of antimalarial drugs targeting the cytoadherence process of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes in the placenta microvasculature, we have developed an automated image-based assay for high-throughput screening for potent cytoadherence inhibitors in vitro.
BACKGROUND: In aromatherapy, essential oils are used as anti-inflammatory remedies, but experimental studies on their action mechanisms are very limited. AIMS: To assess their anti-inflammatory activities, effects of essential oils on neutrophil activation were examined in vitro. METHODS: Neutrophil activation was measured by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced adherence reaction of human peripheral neutrophils.