Cell Culture Techniques

Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system.

Author(s): 
Klinger, Rebecca Y.
Blum, Juliana L.
Hearn, Bevin
Lebow, Benjamin
Niklason, Laura E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Endodontics

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received much attention as a promising population of stem cells in regenerative endodontics. Securing a good blood supply during regeneration is a challenging task because of the constricted apical canal opening, which allows only a limited blood supply. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells (ECs) on osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro.

Author(s): 
Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal
Zhan, Xuan
Zhang, Chengfei
Hargreaves, Kenneth M.
Jin, Lijian
Tong, Edith H. Y.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences

Health problems are rising worldwide, be it as a consequence of lifestyle and longevity in increasingly affluent societies or due to a sharp rise in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The pharmaceutical industry is caught between high rates of attrition and the rather slow pace of a historically large regulatory system for pharmacological safety. Meanwhile, the past decade has seen a tremendous evolution of the biological toolbox, most notably of cellular assays, stem-cell differentiation and organ-mimicking systems. These systems were readily adapted for lead-compound identification.

Author(s): 
Tralau, Tewes
Luch, Andreas
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

Excess adipose tissue is associated with metabolic disease and reduced life span, whereas caloric restriction decreases these risks. Here we show that as mice age, there is downregulation of Dicer and miRNA processing in adipose tissue resulting in decreases of multiple miRNAs. A similar decline of Dicer with age is observed in C.†elegans. This is prevented in both species by caloric restriction. Decreased Dicer expression also occurs in preadipocytes from elderly humans and can be produced in cells by exposure to oxidative stress or UV radiation.

Author(s): 
Mori, Marcelo A.
Raghavan, Prashant
Thomou, Thomas
Boucher, Jeremie
Robida-Stubbs, Stacey
Macotela, Yazmin
Russell, Steven J.
Kirkland, James L.
Blackwell, T. Keith
Kahn, C. Ronald
Publication Title: 
Cell Proliferation

OBJECTIVES: This study has intended to investigate longevity of subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) under extensive culturing. It has also focused on optimization of culture media for them over prolonged periods in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated SF-MSCs with reference to phenotypic characterization, proliferative ability, karyotype stability and differentiation potency with early (P3) and late passage (P20) conditions, using four different media, DMEM-LG, ALPHA-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO.

Author(s): 
Dhanasekaran, M.
Indumathi, S.
Rashmi, M.
Rajkumar, J. S.
Sudarsanam, D.
Publication Title: 
Current Aging Science

According to our conception, the aging process is caused by cell proliferation restriction-induced accumulation of various macromolecular defects (mainly DNA damage) in cells of a mature organism or in a cell population. In the case of cell cultures, the proliferation restriction is related to so-called contact inhibition and to the Hayflick's limit, while in the case of multicellular organisms, it is related to the appearance, in the process of differentiation, of organs and tissues consisting of postmitotic and very slowly dividing cells.

Author(s): 
Khokhlov, Alexander N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Dental Research

Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).

Author(s): 
Makino, Y.
Yamaza, H.
Akiyama, K.
Ma, L.
Hoshino, Y.
Nonaka, K.
Terada, Y.
Kukita, T.
Shi, S.
Yamaza, T.
Publication Title: 
Drug Discovery Today

Traditional ex vivo culture setups fail to imitate the native tissue niche, leading to cellular senescence, phenotypic drift, growth arrest and loss of stem cell multipotency. Growing evidence suggests that surface topography, substrate stiffness, mechanical stimulation, oxygen tension and localised density influence cellular functions and longevity, enhance tissue-specific extracellular matrix deposition and direct stem cell differentiation.

Author(s): 
Cigognini, Daniela
Lomas, Alexander
Kumar, Pramod
Satyam, Abhigyan
English, Andrew
Azeem, Ayesha
Pandit, Abhay
Zeugolis, Dimitrios
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Chronic hepatitis B remains a substantial public health burden affecting approximately 350 million people worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer, and about 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications. Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. As an essential component of the viral life cycle, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is synthesized and maintained at low copy numbers in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes, and serves as the transcription template for all viral RNAs.

Author(s): 
Cai, Dawei
Nie, Hui
Yan, Ran
Guo, Ju-Tao
Block, Timothy M.
Guo, Haitao
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

In many organisms, attenuation of growth signaling by caloric restriction or mutational inactivation of growth signaling pathways extends lifespan and protects against cancer and other age-related diseases. The focus of many efforts to understand these effects has been on the induction of oxidative stress defenses that inhibit cellular senescence and cell death. Here we show that in the model organism S.

Author(s): 
Weinberger, Martin
Sampaio-Marques, Belém
Ludovico, Paula
Burhans, William C.

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